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Reproductive System

Body system that produces, stores, nourishes, ad releases gametes

Testis

Male gonad that produces sperm and androgens.

Androgen

Steroid hormone in males involved in the development of male reproductive structures.

Ovary

Female gonad that produces ova and estrogens.

Estrogen

Steroid hormone in females involved in the development of the reproductive organs.

Puberty

Period of rapid growth and sexual maturation during which the reproductive system becomes fully functional.

Gonad

Reproductive gland that produces gametes and sex hormones.

Scrotum

External sac in which the testes are located.

Seminiferous Tubules

One of thousands of tiny tubules that make up the testes.

Testosterone

Principal male sex hormone that stimulates the development of many male sex characteristics.

Secondary Sex Characteristic

Sex characteristic that appears at puberty.

Epididymis

Structure in the male reproductive system attached to the seminiferous tubules in which sperm mature and are stored.

Vas Deferens

Tube that carries sperm from the epididymis to the urethra.

Seminal Fluid

Substance in which sperm are suspended that is produced by three glands in the abdominal cavity.

Semen

Combination of sperm and seminal fluid.

Urethra

Tube through which urine is released from the body.

Penis

External male reproductive organ; the organ through which the urethra connects to the outside of the body in humans and certain other animals

Ovum

Egg produced in an ovary.

Primary Follicle

Cluster of cells that surround an ovum and prepare it for release from the ovary.

Ovulation

Process that involves the release of a mature ovum from the ovary.

Fallopian Tube

One of two fluid-filled tubes in human females through which an ovum passes after its release from an ovary; location of fertilization.

Uterus

ORgan lying between the Fallopian tubes and the vagina in which a fertilized ovum can develop.

Vagina

Canal that leads from the uterus to the outside of the female body.

Menopause

Period after which follicle development no longer occurs and a female is no longer capable of bearing a child.

Menstrual Cycle

Process that involves the development and release of an egg for fertilization and the preparation of the uterus to receive a fertilized egg.

Corpus Luteum

Name given to the follicle after ovulation because of its yellow appearance.

Progesterone

Steroid hormone released by the corpus luteum.

Menstruation

Last phase of the menstrual cycle during which the lining of the uterus along with blood and the unfertilized ovum are discharged through the vagina.

Zygote

Fertilized egg cell.

Cleavage

Mitotic cell division of a zygote or early embryo.

Morula

Solid ball of cells that make up an embryo; in humans, this stage occurs four days after fertilization.

Blastocyst

Hollow structure in early human embryonic development that results after the morula form a fluid-filled cavity in the center.

Implantation

Process in early embryonic development in which the blastocyst attaches itself to the wall of the uterus and begins to grow inward.

Gastrulation

Process of cell migration during which the primary germ layers are formed in an embryo.

Ectoderm

Outermost primary germ layer in an animal embryo.

Mesoderm

Middle primary germ layer in an animal embryo.

Endoderm

Innermost primary germ layer in an animal embryo

Amnion

Membrane that surrounds and protects a developing embryo; in placental mammals such as humans, develops into the amniotic sac.

Chorion

Outermost membrane surrounding a developing reptile, bird, or mammal embryo; forms the placenta in placental mammals.

Placenta

Organ in placental mammals through which nutrients, oxygen carbon dioxide, and wastes are exchanged between embryo and mother.

Fetus

Unborn young of an animal during the later stages of development; in humans, the name give to embryo after eight weeks of development.

Umbilical Cord

Contains two arteries and one vein, connects the fetus to the placenta.

Amniotic Sac

fluid-filled structure that cushions and protects the developing fetus in placental mammals such as humans.

Labor

Series of rhythmic contractions that cause the opening of the cervix of the uterus to expand so that it will be large enough to allow the baby to pass through.

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