DNA/Meiosis/Genetics

23 terms by kdykstra1 

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final exam

chromosome

threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next

meiosis

Cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms

mitosis

cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes

dna

a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes

rna

ribonucleic acid, a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in the production of protien

trna

transfer RNA; type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome

base pair rules

A+T and C+G

transcription

(genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA

translation

(genetics) the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm

codon

A three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code.

amino acid

monomer that makes up proteins; contains carboxyl and amino functional groups

protein

a class of nutrients that builds body tissues and supplies energy. protein is made of amino acids.

mutation

change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information

incomplete dominance

one allele is not completely dominant over the other allele

codominance

a condition in which both alleles for a gene are fully expressed

multiple alleles

three or more alleles of the same gene

dominant

observed trait of an organism that masks the recessive form of a trait

recessive

The inherited characteristic often masked by the dominant characteristic and not seen in an organism.

genotype

genetic makeup of an organism

phenotype

physical characteristics of an organism

homozygous

having two identical alleles for a trait

heterozygous

having two different alleles for a trait

sex linked trait

a trait that is determined by a gene found on one of the sex chromosomes, such as the X chromosome or the Y chromosome in humans

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