A&P Chapter 27 Reproductive System

Created by jenahgarrett 

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male reproductive anatomy

testes
sperm
accessory organs

testes

primary male sex organ

location of testes

located in scrotum

function of the testes

to produce sperm and androgens

duct system for sperm delivery

epididymis
ductus deferens
ejaculatory duct
urethra

accessory glands of the male reproductive system

seminal vesicles
prostate
bulbourethral glands

function of the accessory glands of the male reproductive system

secretion of semen

scrotum

sac of skin hanging out side the pelvis cavity
at the root of the penis
septum separates testes

why does the scrotum keep the testes 3C lower than core body temp?

lower temp necessary for sperm production

cremaster muscle

pulls testes closer to body when they are cold

testes

contains 500-1000 seminiferous tubules
interstitial cells surrounding tubules produce androgens
(all tubules merge and sperms enter epididymis)

seminiferous tubules

actual sperm factories

epididymis

covers superior and posterior aspects of testis

cilia in epididymis cells

absorb testicular fluid
pass nurtients to sperm

sperms mature as they pass through ---

the epididymis
head, body and tail

where are sperm stored?

in the tail of the epididymis

what contracts during ejaculation?

the tail of the epididymis
expels sperm into ductus deferens

length of ductus deferens

~ 18in long

what is the largest part of the duct systems in males?

the ductus deferens

route of ductus deferens

runs from epididymis upward into pelvic cavity and loops over ureter

ejaculatory duct

formed from ductus deferens and seminal vesicles

vasectomy

cutting and ligating of ductus deferens

shortest portion of the duct system

ejaculatory duct

ejaculatory duct

enters prostate gland and connects to urethra

urethra in males

conveys both urine and semen

penis

delivers sperm into female reproductive tract
includes root, shaft and glans penis

glans penis

top of penis
covered by the prepuce (fore skin)

circumcision

removal of foreskin
about 60% in the US

three columns of erectile tissue

connective tissue
smooth muscle
lots of blood vessels

erection

when erectile tissue is filled with blood

semen

viscous alkaline fluid containing fructose, ascorbic acid and coagulating enzyme

function of semen

enhances sperm motility and fertilizing ability
provides nutrients and medium
coagulation causes sperms to stick to vaginal wall

where do sperm and semen mix?

in the ejaculatory duct

seminal vesicles

posterior to bladder
make 60% of semen volume

prostate

inferior to bladder
makes 30% of semen volume
plays role in activation of sperm

bulbourethral glands

interior to prostate
make 10% of semen volume
produce thick, clear mucus that neutralizes traces of acidic urine in urethra

female reproductive organs

ovaries
accessory organs - uterine tubes, uterus and vagina

primary female organ

ovaries
held in place by ligaments on either side of uterus

function of ovaries

make ova
secrete estrogen and progesterone

ovarian follicles

contained within the ovaries at various stages of development
each one contains a oocyte

oocyte

a female gametocyte that develops into an ovum after two meiotic divisions

ovarian follicle stages

primordial follcile
primary follicle
secondary follicle
tertiary (vesticular) follicle
ovulation
corpus luteum (yellow body)

primordial follicle stage

one layer of squamous-like cells surround oocyte

primary follicle stage

one layer of cuboidal cells surround oocyte
starts each month after puberty

secondary follicle stage

two or more layer of cuboidal cells surround oocyte
antrum formed

antrum

fluid filled inside of an oocyte from the secondary follicle stage onward

tertiary (vesicular) follicle stage

mature stage that bulges from ovary surface

ovulation

ejection of oocyte from follicle

corpus luteum

yellow body
ruptured follicle that degenerates
secretes hormones
takes place as early placenta

what part of meiosis is completed only if an egg is fertilized?

meiosis II

other names of fallopian tubes

uterine tubes
oviduct

fallopian tubes

receive and transport oocyte and provide site for fertilization
via fimbriae sweeping, cilia beating and peristalsis

fimbraie

fingerlike projections over ovary

ampulla

enlarged part of fallopian tube
where fertilization usually occurs

uterus

hollow, thick-walled organ in pelvis
receives and nourishes fertilized ovum

endometrium

lumen mucosal lining
undergoes cyclic changes in response to hormones
sheds during menstration

structure of the uterus

fundus - superior rounded region
body - major mid-portion
cervix - narrow neck leading to the vagina
lumen - cavity

vagina

thin-walled tube from cervix to exterior

what is embedded in the anterior wall of the vagina?

the urethra

vagina provides ---

passageway for birth, menstrual flow and copulation

muscus gladns in the vagina secrete what and why?

glucose
is metabolized by bacteria into lactic acid, which prevents a lot of bacteria and yeast from entering
low pH keeps vagina healthy

external female genitalia

mons pubis
labia majora
labia minora
clitoris

mons pubis

round, fatty area overlying pubic symphysis

labia majora

elongated fatty skin folds
(homologous to male scrotum)

labia minora

skin folds within labia majora

clitoris

erectile tissue hooded by skin fold
(homologous to male penis)

diploid

every cell in body other than sex cell
all have two sets from chromosomes
(2n)

how many pairs of homologous chromosomes do humans have?

23 pairs of chromosomes

how many chromosomes do human sex cells have?

23 chromosomes
(haploid (n))

meiosis

cell divides twice and forms 4 different cells

DNA duplication in meiosis

identical copies remain together as sister chromatids

meiosis I

homologous chromosomes split (2n to n)
synapses from triads
crossover can exchange sections of material

meiosis II

sister chromatids split

spermatogenesis

process of producing sperm via meiosis
in seminiferous tubules
happens throughout life time

what do sperm heads contain?

DNA and hydrolytic enzymes

atozoa

sperm

oogenesis

process of producing female eggs via meiosis
starts in fetus

meiosis stalls in what stage until puberty?

prophase I

what meiosis stage is completed each month in females after puberty?

meiosis I

one of four daughter cells is ovulated and stopped in what stage?

metaphase II

follicular stage of ovarian cycle

days 1-14
follicle matures and bulges from ovary surface

ovulation stage of ovarian cycle

day 14
ovarian wall ruptures and expels oocyte

luteal phase of ovarian cycle

days 14-28
remaining follicle forms CL
CL secretes progesterone and estrogen
CL degenerates if no pregnancy

what happens with the CL if an egg is fertilized?

produces hormones until placenta is formed (at ~ three months)

menstrual cycle

uterine endometrium changes in response to hormone on monthly basis

phases of menstrual cycle

menstrual phase
proliferative pahse
secretory phase

menstrual phase of menstrual cycle

days 1-5
uterus sheds all but the deepest part of the endometrium

proliferative phase

days 6-14
endometrium rebuilds itself

secretory phase

days 15-28
endometrium prepares for embryo implantation

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