Joints (8)

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47 terms · a&p chapter 8

Articulations

where two or more bones meet

Functional Classification of Joints

(1) Synarthroses (Immovable)
(2) Amphiarthrosis (Slightly movable)
(3) Diarthroses (Fully movable)

gomphosis

ligaments that hold tooth in bony socket,
immovable joint,

Structural Classification of Joints

(1) Fibrous: (bone ends united by collagen)
sutures, syndesmoses, gomphoses
(2) Cartilaginous: (bones united by cartilage)
synchondrosis, symphyses, synovial joints

Types of synovial joints

Planar, Hinge, Pivot, Saddle, Ball & Socket, Condyloid/Ellipsoid

Flexion, Extension, Hypertension

Flexion- bent knee
Extension-extend knee
Hypertension-bring leg back

Abduction, Adduction, Circumduction

Abduction-arms out
Adduction-arms in

Rotation, Lateral rotation, Medial rotation

Rotation- twisting
Lateral rotation- twisting out
Medial rotation- twisting in

Pronation, Supination

Pronation-palm down
Supination- palm up

Dorsiflexion, Plantar flexion

Dorsiflexion- heel down toes up
Plantar flexion- toes pointed down

Inversion, Eversion

Inversion-foot in
Eversion-foot out

Protraction, Retraction

Protraction- chin forward
Retraction- chin back

Elevation, Depression

Elevation-shoulders up
Depression- shoulders down

Opposition

Opposition- thumb and index finger pinch. "OK"

Factors influencing Joint stability

(1) Shape of articular surface
(2) Ligaments
(3) Muscle tone

Disorders and Imbalances: Sprain

Sprain type 1- stretched ligament
Sprain type 2- ligaments torn slightly
Sprain type 3- ligaments torn completely

Lyme disease

deer ticks, bullseye rash, joint disease

Osteoarthritis

Degenerative joint disease, non-inflammatory, only cartilage affected, deterioration of cartilage produces bone spurs and restricts movements, pain upon awakening and lessens with movement.

Gouty Arthritis

Uric acid crystals build up in joints-pain.
waste products of metabolism build up and deposited in cartilage causing inflammation and swelling. bones fuse.

Rheumatoid arthritis

Autoimmune disorder, cartilage attacked by immune system, inflammation and swelling, pain, joint fusion

Arthroscopy

examination of joint, small instrument, remove torn knee cartilage, small incisions

Arthroplasty

replacement of joint, total hip replaces acetablum and head of femur, plastic socket and metal head, knee replacement.

R.I.C.E.

Treating a sprain:
Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation

(top to bottom)
clavicle, scapula, humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, phalanges, metacarpals, femur, patella, fibula, tibia, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges

cranial bones: lateral

cranial bones: lateral
labeled

cranial bone: posterior

cranial bone: posterior
labeled

cranial bone: inferior

cranial bone:inferior
labeled

carpal bones

tarsal bones

kyphosis

name vertebral disorder

scoliosis

name vertebral disorder

lordosis

name vertebral disorder

what is the difference between the appendicular and axial skeleton?

the Axial lines the axis and the Appendicular include the appendages of the skeleton

What is a fontanel?

a fibrous connective tissue in the fetal skeleton, before fusing.

Weight bearing vertebrae are called?

Lumbar vertebrae (5)

Which vertebrae has transverse foramen?

Cervical Vertebrae (7)

What 7 bones make up the orbit of the eye?

Ethmoid, Palatine, Sphenoid, Frontal, Lacrimal, Maxilla and Zygomatic

Which bones are the keystone to the facial bones and the keystone to the cranial bones?

Facial keystone: Maxilla
Cranial keystone: Sphenoid

Where on the clavicle is the weakest spot and most likely to be broken?

the middle.

List 3 functions of sinuses.

Warm and moisten air,
lighten the skull,
enhance voice resonance.

knee joint

name.

knee joint:
labeled

knee:labeled

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