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Thyrotropin (TRH)

Causes pituitary to release Thyrortopin
Thyroid-Stimulating hormone (TSH)

Hypothalamus

Thyrotropin-stimulating hormone (TRH)

Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)

Causes pituitary to release coticotropin
Adrenocortictropic hormone (ACTH)

Hypothalamus

Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)

Causes pituitary to release gonodotropic hormones: follitropin (follicle stimulating FSH), lutropin (luteinizing hormone LH)

Hypothalamus

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)

Prolactin-releasing hormone (PRF)

Causes pituitary to release Prolactin (PRL)
or mammotropin

Hypothalamus

Prolactin-releasing hormone (PRF)

Prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH)

Inhibits the pituitary from releasing Prolaction (PRL) or mammotropin

Hypothalamus

Prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH)

Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GH-RH)

Causes pituitary to release growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin

Hypothalamus

Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GH-RH)

Growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GH-IH)

Inhibits the pituitary from releasing growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin

Hypothalamus

Growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GH-IH)

Melanocyte-stimulating hormone -inhibiting hormone (MSH-IH)

Inhibits the pituitary from releasing Melanocyte-stimulating ormone (MSH) or melanotropin

Hypothalamus

Melanocyte-stimulating hormone -inhibiting hormone (MSH-IH)

Thyroid-stimulation hormone (TSH) or thyrotropin

Causes thyroid to release thyroid hormones

Anterior pituitary

Thyroid-stimulation hormone (TSH) or thyrotropin

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or coticotropin

Causes adrenal gland to secrete glucocorticoids

Anterior pituitary

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or coticotropin

Gonadotropic hormones
1. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) or follitropin
2. Luteninizing ormone (LH) or lutropin

Regulate the activities of male and female gonads
1.
In females: stimulate follicle development and estrogen secretion; In males: stimulates sperm production
2.
In females: stimulates ovulation, formation of corpus luteum, and progestin production - prepare the body for possible pregnancy; In males: stimulates production of androgens (testosterone)

Anterior pituitary

Gonadotropic hormones
1. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) or follitropin
2. Luteninizing ormone (LH) or lutropin

Prolactin (PRL) or mammotropin

Stimulates the development of the mammary glands, and milk production

Anterior pituitary

Prolactin (PRL) or mammotropin

Growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin

Stimulates cell growth, replicatiton and protein syntheses. Stimulates lipid mobilization and catabolism

Anterior pituitary

Growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin

Melanocyte-stimulation hormone (MSH) or melanotropin

Stimulates the melanocytes to produce melanin

Anterior pituitary

Melanocyte-stimulation hormone (MSH) or melanotropin

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin or arginine

Reduce water excretion, vasoconstricter (constrict peripheral blood vessesls) elevates blood volume and pressure

Anterior pituitary

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin or arginine

Oxyotocin (OT)

In women: premotes the ejection of milk, labor contractions and delivery
In males: contractions of ductus deferens and prostate

Anterior pituitary

Oxyotocin (OT)

Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3)

Speed up the Kreb's cycle; increase: protein synthesis, oxygen consumption, growth; stimylates development of the nervous system

Thyroid

Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3)

Calcitonin (CT)

Decreases Ca2+ concentrations in the body

Thyroid

Calcitonin (CT)

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) or parathormone

Increases the Ca3+ concentrations in the body

Thyroid

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) or parathormone

Thymosin

Stimulates development and maturation of immune response

Thymus

Thymosin

Mineralcorticoids (MC)
*Aldosterone

Regulates electrolyte composition of bodily fluids
*stimylates conservation of sodium ions and elimination of potassium ions

Adrenal Cortex

Mineralcorticoids (MC)
*Aldosterone

Glucocorticoids (GC): cortisol (hydrocortisone), corticosterone, cortisone

Accelerate glucose synthesis and glycogen formation; glucose-sparing effect; anti-inflammatory effect; releasee amino acids from skeletal muscles

Adrenal Cortex

Glucocorticoids (GC): cortisol (hydrocortisone), corticosterone, cortisone

Androgen (steroid sex hormones)

Uncertain significance

Adrenal Cortex

Androgen (steroid sex hormones)

Epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE)

Increase: blood glucose, blood glycerol, gatty acids, heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing rate

Adrenal Medulla

Epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE)

Calcitriol

Stimulat calcium (Ca2+) and phosphate (PO43-) ion absorption in digestive tract

Kidney

Calcirtiol

Erythropoietin (EPO)

Stimulates the production of red blood cells

Kidney

Erythropoietin (EPO)

Renin

Converts angiotensinogen -> angiotensin l

Kidney

Renin

Angiotensinogen

Involced in renin-angiotensin system

Liver

Angiotensinogen

Somatomedins or insulin-like growth factors (IGFs)

Converts angiotensin to angiotensin 2

Liver

Somatomedins or insulin-like growth factors (IGFs)

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)

Preomotes the loss of Na+ and water; inhibits the secretion of renin, antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and Aldosterone; suppresses thirst; blocks actions of angiotensin ll or norepinephrine on arterioles

Heart

Atrial natriuretic peptied (ANP)

Glucagon

Increases blood glucose by stimulating: glycogen breakdown, trglyceride breakdown, glucose production

Pancreas

Glucagon

Insulin

Lowers blood glucose by accelerating: glucose uptake, glucose utilization and enhanced ATP productio; stimulation: glycogen formation, amino acid absorption and protein synthesis, triglyceride formation

Pancreas

Inculin

Somatosin

Suppresses glucagon and insulin release; slows food absorption rates and enzyme production

Pancreas

Somatosin

Pancreatic polypeptide (PP)

Inhibits gallbladder contractions, regulate some pancreatic enzyme production

Pancreas

Pancreatic polypeptide (PP)

Androgen (steroid sex hormones)
*testosterone

*Production of functional sperm; maintain secretory glands of male reproductive tract; stimulates: growth, protein synthesis and muscle growth; determine male secondary sexual characteristics; produce aggressive behavioral responses

Testes

Androgen (steroid sex hormones)
*testosterone

Inhibin

Inhibits the secretion of follicle stimulation hormone (FSH) or follitropin

Testes

Inhibin

Estrogen
*Estradiol

Steroid hormone that support the maturation of oocytes, female secondary sexual characteristics, associated behaviors; and stimulate the growth of uterine lining

Ovaries

Estrogen
*Estradiol

Inhibin

Inhibits the secretion of follicle stimulation hormone (FSH) or follitropin

Ovaries

Inhibin

Progestins
*Progesterone

*Prepare the uterus for the embryo, accerlate the movcement of the oocyte or embryo, enlargement of the mammary glands

Ovaries

Progestins
*Progesterone

Relaxin

Loosen the pubic symphysis, permit expansion of the vervix and vagina during delivery, stimulates development of the mammary glands

Ovaries

relaxin

Melatonin

Slows the maturation of sperm, ooxytes, and reproductive organs by reducing the GnRH secretion rate; very effective
Antioxidant- pretect the body from free raficals; establish daily circadian rhythms

Pineal

Melatonin

Angiotesin l

Incolced in renin-angiotensin system

Angiotensin ll

Stimulates: adrenal production of aldosterone, pituitary to secrete antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

Acromegaly

Growth hormone (GH); excessive growth

Pituitary growth failure

Growth hormone (GH); retarted growth, abnormal fat distribution, low blood glucose hours after a meal

Diabetes mellitus

Insulin; high blood glucose, impaired glucose utilization, dependence on lipids for energy; glycosuria

Diabetes insipidus

Antifiuretic hormone (ADH) or arginine casopressin (AVP); Polyuria, dehydration, thirst

Hypothyroidism (myxedema, cretinism)

Thyroxine (T4) Triiodothyronine (T3); low metabolic rate; low body temoerature; impaired physical and mental development

Hyperthyroidism

Thyroxine (T4) Triiodothyronine (T3); High metabolic rate and body temperature

hypoparathyroidism

Parathyroid hormone (PTH); Muscular weakness, neurological problems, formation of dense bones, tetany due to low blood Ca2+ concentrations

Hyperparathyroidism

Parathyroid hormone (PTH); Neurological, mental, muscular problems due to hight blood Ca2+ concentrations; weak and brittle bones

Aldosteronism

Mineralocorticoids (MCs); Increased body weight due to Na+ and water retention; low blood K+ concentration

Adison's Disease

Glucocorticoids (GCs); Inability to tolerate stress, mobilize energy reservs, or maintain normal blood glucose concentrations

Cushing's Disease

Glucocorticoids (GCs); Excessive breakdown of tissue proteins and lipid reserves; impaired glucose metabolism

Adrenogenital syndrome

Estrogens (females); Overproduction of androgens by zona reticularis of suprarenal cortex leads to masculinization

Adrenogenital syndrome (gynecomastia)

Androgens (male); Abnormal production of estrogen, sometimes die to suprarenal or interstitial cell tumors; leads to breast enlargment

Olfactory organs

Provide sense of smell; located in the nasal cavity on either side of nasal septum; made up of two layers, olfactory epithelium (receptors, supporting cells, basal (stem) cells, lamina propria (areolar tissue, blood vessels, nerves, olfactory glands

Olfactory receptors

Highly modified neurons; involves detecting dissolved chemicals as the interact with odorant-binding proteins

Olfactory pathways

Axons leaving olfactory epithelium; collect into 20 or more bundles; penetrate cribriform plate of ethmoid; reach olfactory bulbs of cerebrum where first synapse occurs.
Axons leaving olfactory bulb: travel along olfactory tract to reach olfactory cortex, hypothalamus, and portions of limbic system; arriving information reaches information centers without first synapsing in the thalamus

Olfactory discrimination

Can distinguish thousands of chemical stimuli; CNS interperts smells by the pattern of recveptor activity
Receptor population- considerable turnober; number of olfactory reveptors declines with age

Gustatory receptors (taste receptors)

Are distributed on tongue and portions of pharynx and larynx; clustered into taste buds
Taste buds-associated with epithelial projections (lingual papillae) on superior surface of tongue

Lingual papillae

Three types: Filiform-provides friction; do not contain taste buds; fungiform-contain five taste buds each; Circumvallate-contains 100 taste buds each

Taste buds

Contain- basal cells, gustatory cells-extend taste hairs through taste pore, survive only 10 days before replacement, monitored by crainal nerves that synapse within solitary nucleus of medulla oblongata, then on to thalamus and primary sensory cortex

Four primary taste sensations

Sweet, salty, sour, bitter

Additional human taste sensations

Umami-characteristic of beef/chicken broths and parmesan cheese, receptors sensitibve to amino acids, small peptides, and nucleotides; water- detected by water receptors in the pharynx

Gustatory discrimination

Dissolved chemicals contact taste hairs, bind to receptor proteins of gustatory cell, salt and sour reveptors, chemically gated ion channels, stimulation produces depolarization of cell, sweet, bitter, and umami stimuli, g-proteins, gustducins

Taste sensitivity

Exhibits significant individual differences, some conditions are inherited-for example phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) 70% of caucasians taste in but 30% don not, number of taste buds begins to decline rapidly by age 50

Accessroy structure of the eye

Provide protection, lubercation, and support; include the palpebrae (eyelids), superficial epithelium of eye, lacrimal apparatus

Palpebrae

continuation of skin, blinking keeps surface of eye lubricated, free of dust and debris

Palpebral fissure

Gap that seperates free margins of upper and lower eyelids

Medial and lateral canthus

Where two eyelids are connected

Eyelashes

Robust hairs that prevent foreign matter from reaching surface of eye

Tarsal glands

Secrete lipid-rich product that helps keep eyelids from sticking together

Superficial epithelium of eye

Lacrimal caruncle-mass of soft tissue, contains glands producing thick secretions, contributes to gritty deposits that appear after a good nights sleep
conjunctiva- epithelium covering inner surface of eyelid (palpbral conjunctiva) and outter surface of eye (ocular conjunctiva)

Lacrimal apparatus

Produces, distributes and removes tears

Fornix

Pocket where palpebral conjunctiva joins ocular conjunctiva

Lacrimal gland (tear gland)

Secretions contain lysozyme, and antibacterial enzyme

Tears

Collect in the lacrimal lake, pass through lacrimal puncta, lacrimal canaliculi, lacrimal sac, nasolacrimal duct, to reach inferior meatus of nose

Three layers of the eye

Outer fibrous layer, intermediate cascular layter, deep inner layer

Eye ball

Hollow, divided into two cavities- large posterior and smaller anterior cavity

Fibrous layer

Sclera (white of the eye), cornea, corneal limbus (border between cornea and sclera)

Vascular layer (Ucvea)

Provides route for blood vessels and lymphatics that supply tissues of eye, regulates amount of light entering eye, secretes and reabsorbs aqueous humor that circulates within chambers of eye, controls shape of lens which is essential to focusing,

Irus

Contains papillary muscles, change diameter of pupil

Ciliary body

Extends posteriorly to lebel of ora serrata, serrated anteroir edge of thick, inner portion of neural tunic, contains cilary processes, and cilary muscle that attaches to suspensory ligaments of lens

Choroid

Vascular layer that seperates fibrous and inner layers posterior to ora serrata, delivers oxygen and nutrients to retina

Inner layer

Neural part (retina)- contains cisual revceptors and associated neurons, roda and cones are types of photoreceptors

Outter layer

Pigmented part

Rods

Do not discriminate light colors, highly sensitive to light

Cones

Provide color vision, densely clustered in fovea, at center of macula

Bipolar cells

Neurons of rods and cones synapse with ganglion cells

Horizontal cells

Extend across outer portion of retina

Amacrine cells

Comparable to horizontal cell layer, where bipolar cells synapse with ganglion cells

Optic disc

Circular region just medial to fovea, origin of optic nerve (blind spot)

Chambers of the eye

Cilary body and lens divide eye into: large posterior cavity (vitreous chamber) between iris, ,ciliary body and lens; smaller anterior cabity, anterior chamber extends from cornea to iris

Aqueous humor

Fluid circulates within eye, diffuses through walls of anterior chamber into scleral venous sinus (canal of schlemm), re-enters circulation

Intraocular pressure

Fluid pressure in aqueous humor, helps retain eye shape

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