the spread of social institutions (and myths and skills) from one society to another
movement of people from rural areas to cities
adoption of western ideas, technology, and culture
the development of industry on an extensive scale
The ability of individuals to move from one social standing to another. Social standing is based on degrees of wealth, prestige, education and power.
What are problems facing the world today?
Refugees, drug trade, terrorism, the environment, economy, human rights, technology, overpopulation
a large and distinctive landmass (as India or Greenland) that is a distinct part of some continent
a seasonal wind in southern Asia
-wet monsoon = strong rains
-dry monsoon = strong winds, blows from April to October
the four Hindu castes
5th and highest caste, mainly priests
4th caste, warriors
3rd caste, farmers or merchants
2nd caste, poor workers and laborers
(Hinduism and Buddhism) the effects of a person's actions that determine his destiny in his next incarnation
doing one's moral duty in this life so that the soul can advance in the next life
in Buddhism, the release from pain and suffering achieved after enlightenment
the form of nonviolent resistance initiated in India by Mahatma Gandhi in order to oppose British rule and to hasten political reforms
a group's refusal to obey a law because they believe the law is immoral (as in protest against discrimination), used by Ghandi
government in which voters elect representatives to a lawmaking body which chooses a prime minister to head the government
worldly; not pertaining to church matters or religion; temporal; ex. secular government
a Muslim republic that occupies the heartland of ancient south Asian civilization in the Indus River valley; formally a part of India before the partition
an area in southwestern Asia whose sovereignty is disputed between Pakistan and India
Climate of South Asia
-Monsoons- bring much needed rain, but also cause a lot of flooding
- Thar Desert- a caravan center. AKA the great indian desert. Spans across India and Pakistan
- Annual precipitation is high where the monsoon reaches but very low where they don't reach
major religious and cultural tradition of the Indian subcontinent, developed from Vedic religion
This religion was founded by Siddhartha Gautama and explained the way to salvation through self-discipline and poverty. It evolved from Hinduism in northern India and Nepal.
Arranged marriages and Family life
-many large extended families living together
-arranged marriages, more like the families marry each other, often done for status
British rule and Ghandis fight for independence
- British given higher ranks in society
-Ghandi led nationalist movement against British w/ his peaceful protest
-methods included strikes and total days of ceased work
Subcontinent Divided/India and Pakistan
-tension between Hindus and Muslims caused India to divide into India and West and East Pakistan
-Tensions between West and East Pakistan caused East Pakistan to break away from West b/c they felt as though they weren't getting enough aid
-East Pakistan became Bangladesh
Indian Prime Ministers
After independence, there was a chain of Prime Ministers that were unfair money-suckers. They were a family, and continually took power. They even named themselves after Ghandi to win over the citizens. Current prime minister is Manmohan Singh
Ethical World View
The views the world has on a situation and if they deem it be ethical
the religious faith of Muslims, based on the words and religious system founded by the prophet Muhammad and taught by the Koran, the basic principle of which is absolute submission to a unique and personal god, Allah.
the flight of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622 which marked the beginning of the Muslim era
a pilgrimage to Mecca, performed as a duty by Muslims
the civil and religious leader of a Muslim state considered to be a representative of Allah on earth
5 Pillars of Islam
Foundation of Muslim life:
•Shahadah: Faith or belief in the Oneness of God and the finality of the prophethood of Muhammad
•Salat: Establishment of the daily prayers
•Zakat: Concern for and almsgiving to the needy
•Sawm: Self-purification through fasting during Ramadan
•Hajj: The pilgrimage to Mecca for those who are able.
the founder of the Islam religion; to Muslims, Muhammad is the ultimate and final prophet
A medieval military expedition, one of a series made by Europeans to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries
Sultan of Syria and Egypt; re-conquered Jerusalem from the Christians in 1187 but was defeated by Richard Coeur de Lion in 119
Albanian soldier in the service of Turkey who was made viceroy of Egypt and took control away from the Ottoman Empire and established Egypt as a modern state (1769-1849)
The belief that Arabs should have their own country/nation
West Bank / Golan Heights / Sinai Peninsula / Gaza Strip:
-Areas of conflict in the Israeli Palestinian conflict.
-Taken by Israel during the Six Day War (1967) but only the Sinai was returned.
-West Bank: Palestinian land occupied by Israel.
-Golan Heights: province of Syria occupied, and then annexed, by Israel.
-Sinai Peninsula: Part of Egypt that was occupied by Israel but later returned in 1979.
-Gaza Strip: Palestinian land that was occupied by Israel, from which they withdrew in 2005. However, the Gaza Strip is still controlled by Israel from the borders.
the belief in government by divine guidance
Shah of Iran / Khomeini
-Shah: title for the former hereditary monarch of Iran
-Khomeini returned from exile in 1979 to lead an Islamic revolution that overthrew the shah. He established Iran as a fundamentalist Islamic republic and relentlessly pursued the Iran-Iraq War 1980-88
Turkish army officer that abolished caliphate and made Turkey a secular state
Ethnic group that lives in parts of Iraq and Turkey. They often suffer persecution in both countries, and are currently under the protection of the United Nations in Iraq.
-aka 1st Persian Gulf war
-Iraq invaded Iran during the Iranian revolution b/c of many years of border disputes, as well as fearing a Shia Islam insurgency among Iraq's majority Shia group; feared this because the Iranians overthrew their Shia leader
-Iraq lost and Iran took back all their land, UN made them return to original borders
Ogranization of Petroleum Exporting Countries; an organization of countries formed in 1961 to agree on a common policy for the production and sale of petroleum
- Was a dictator in Iraq who tried to take over Iran and Kuwait violently in order to gain the land and the resources. He also refused to let the UN into Iraq in order to check if the country was secretly holding weapons of mass destruction.
an uprising by Palestinian Arabs (in both the Gaza Strip and the West Bank) against Israel in the late 1980s and again in 2000, bloody and lots of riots
the territory currently occupied by Israel taken during the Six-Day War
Palestine Liberation Organization, Lead by Mahmoud Abbas. Groups of refugees in camps that came up with a group that demanded that Palestine have its own state, and denied Israel as one.
What geographic factors influence population patterns in the Middle East?
-Very arid land
-Weathy people live where its fertile
-Israelis give Palestinians arid land so they can keep the fertile land
What are the claims of each religion to Jerusalem?
Judaism- Jerusalem has been the holiest city in Judaism and the ancestral and spiritual homeland of the Jewish people since the 10th century BCE.
Christianity- For Christians, Jerusalem's place in the life of Jesus gives it great importance, in addition to its place in the Old Testament, the Hebrew Bible.
Islam- Jerusalem is considered a sacred site in Sunni Islamic tradition, along with Mecca and Medina. Islamic tradition holds that previous prophets were associated with the city, and that it was where Muhammad ascended to heaven.
What caused the crusades and what were its effects?
-Pope wanted to get Jerusalem back from the Arabs
-Saladin and the Arabs fought back and ended the crusaders and the name of Jihad
-Both Christians and Muslims claim roots to Jerusalem and that causes many problems
-Currently Israel has claims to Isreal
Roles of Women in Islam
Karan says men and women are equal, in the culture however:
-Overall women must obey men
-Certian dress codes
-Men believed they are protectors of women
How did imperialism spur the growth of nationalism in the ME?
-Skyes-Picot Agreement: Basically Europe promised the Arabs land if they helped during WWI, and then gave it all away.
-Caused Arabs to not only distrust and dislike the Europeans, but also to want their own state
Describe the modernization of Iran
-Shah modernized it by taking the money from oil and using it for industry and agriculture
-During Islamic revolution all modernization stopped, until Khomeini
-Achmenijhad, current president is creating a nuclear program
Describe the modernization of Turkey
-Part of EU
-Export over 1/2 of products to Europe
Describe the modernization of Egypt
-Promoting industrialization b/c they only have one product, cotton
-Needs to do something because it doesn't have any oil
What does Israel want from the Arab-Israeli conflict?
-Protect current borders that aren't recognized by anyone else
What does Palestine want from the Arab-Israeli conflict?
-Wants its own state that was originally Palestine but is now Isreal
Causes/events/outcomes of Gulf War
-Causes: Iraq invaded in 1990 for Kuwait's oil supply with the claim that Kuwait was originally a part of Iraq
-US got involved to protect their own interests in Kuwait's oil
-When Iraq didn't give Kuwait autonomy the UN put a trade embargo on them, and they lost money, but continued to bother Kuwait
How does Islamic Fundamentalism effect the ME and the world?
-Racidal ideas trying to change governments
-Causes worldwide terror
Benefits of having oil in the ME
-Huge oil supply
-Gives US a reason for occupation
-US can control the area
-Pays for modernization
Drawbacks of having oil in the ME
-ME controls the price
-Causes turf wars
-Major fights over the oil
-US is dependent on them
general agreement among various groups on fundamental matters; broad agreement on public questions
-typical in tribal Africa
farming that provides for the basic needs of the farmer without surpluses for marketing
an organized category of people based on age; every individual passes through a series of such categories over his or her lifetime
A meeting from 1884-1885 at which representatives of European nations agreed on rules colonization of Africa
Lasting from 1899 to 1902, Dutch colonists and the British competed for control of territory in South Africa.
A native African group who fought with the Boers for control of the land were herders and agriculturists moved into southern Africa.
an economic system based on money rather than barter. Africa is currently trying to become this
attempts by Africans to remove colonialization and become independent
belonging or relating to white people of South Africa whose ancestors were Dutch or to their language
leader of the African National Congress who was jailed for his opposition to apartheid in South Africa. He was later elected president in 1994 when free elections were established, and was instrumental in a new democratic constitution being written in 1996.
President of South Africa in 1989. Began to dismantle white-only rule and the official structures of the Apartheid. Shared Nobel Peace Prize with Nelson Mandela.
Archbishop Desmond Tutu
A South African Reverend who fought against apartheid in the 1980s, won the Nobel Peace Prize
"black consciousness"- blacks should go beyond tribal affiliations, makes black unified. He was arrested because he is a "terrorist"--- beaten to death--- rallying cause, martyr
are viewpoints seeking to unify the African continent into one body. This serves to avoid internal conflict as well as to form a history from the African viewpoint. It may also be viewed as a movement to solidify African traditionalism.
A nationalist leader who fought to end oppressive laws against Africans; later became the first Prime Minister of Kenya
Leopold Sedar Senghor
(1906 - 2001) One of the post-World War I writers of the negritude literary movement that urged pride in African values; president of Senegal from 1960 to 1980.
President of Zimbabwe. As one of the leaders of the liberation movement against white-minority rule, he was elected into power in 1980. He served as Prime Minister from 1980 to 1987, and as the first executive head of state since 1987
Organization of African Unity
An establishment founded after the Pan-African meeting in 1963 aimed to create a sense of unity among Africans.
Resistance to side with one nation/force. Ex: India did not take a side during the Cold War.
What are the important geographic features of Africa? Why are some countries rich and some poor?
-Rich areas have more fertile soil and oil
-No natural resources or water = poor malnourished nation
Climate zones of Africa
-North Africa is dark with lots of desertification
-Central Africa is tropical, hot and wet
-Southern Africa is cooler
Describe the Ancient Egyptians
-Tight knit community
-Gods and dietys ruled their lives
-Caused them to have a lot of achievements over the land they ruled
History of the Trading Kings of Africa
-Originally Ghana was a huge empire
-Mali took over and created the town of Timbuktu, which was a huge Saharan trading post
-After Mali declined, Songhai empire took over, many ideas spread
Cause and Effect of African Slave Trade
-Need for workers
-Creation of African-Americans
What were the cultural characteristics of early African societies?
•Leaders are decided upon based on age
•Age Grade system- the system in which different age-groups have different responsibilities and rights, which members continuously move through. This system is prevalent in Africa, with the most important group being the wise elders.
•Lineage- the ancestry of a person. Africans have strong beliefs connected to their ancestors. They are deeply respected and worshiped. Ancestry also determines caste and tribe.
•They have many relatives including second and third cousins living with them
•Pride is shown by making a mark on one's face. (scarification)
•Tribes have their own language and dialect that is different than surrounding tribes
•they have a council of elders who give advice to the people
•polygamy is used by 80% of the men
European motives to imperialize:
-source for raw materials
-market for finished goods
-"white man's burden"
Soc. and Eco Opportunities
Places to dump unwanted/excess population
Military and naval bases
Missionary activity--- spread religion
Effects of European Rule:
Abolished much of tribal African society
Left many African people poor
Effects of Apartheid on SA society
Blacks lost rights
Whites given advantages in society
How and why did the S.African government change the apartheid policies?
European nations including the US created trade embargoes against them
How did the African nations gain their independence?
-Creation of nationalism parties
-Both violent and peaceful protests
-Got other nations to help create trade embargoes against SA
Current Issues in Africa Today
•Still racial inequality between whites and blacks
•AIDS is a huge problem throughout the entire continent due to the lack of STD-prevention education.
•Diamond trade is very bad with blood diamonds.