Identify protein building blocks
What is the term for proteins that have all the required amino acids?
Primary function of protein
tissue building and repair
what is the Chemical composition of protein
Carbon hydrogen oxygen and Nitrogen
animal origin (meat)
What protein source is omitted by vegans?
What is nitrogen balance?
an indicator of how well the bodys tissues are being maintained. measured by the amount of nitrogen intake in food protein and the amount of nitrogen ecxreted in the urine.
A male client weights: 150 lbs / 2.2 = 68.1
68.1 x 0.8 = 54.48 gms
Calculate protein RDA.
Identify examples of incomplete protein foods.
grains, legumes, nuts, and seeds (except corn, quinoa, contains dispensable amino acids).
What is protein needed for? Primary function.
to repair worn-out, wasted, or damaged tissue and build up new tissue.
Vegetarian diet for a vegan.
strict vegetarian diet which excludes all animal products
What foods are good sources of complete protein
animal orgin (milk, cheese, meat, poultry, and fish) also soy products
animal and plant foods (variety)
Grains and peas, beans, or lentils
Legumes and seeds
Grains and dairy
Identify three examples of complementary proteins. (see. p. 51 Cultural Considerations) Look at different cultures.
Substance produced during protein breakdown into carbon (CHO component) skeleton amino acids
Describe use of complementary proteins.
When different incomplete proteins are consumed in the diet, the body can use those together to obtain a balance of the essential amino acids;
fruits and vegetables usually incomplete with the exception of soy.
Describe low protein foods.
what are External signs of protein deficiency
swollen feet and legs bloated abdomen,/ bones showing, emaciated.
What is an important protein in the body?
digestive and cell enzymes
lipoproteins (fat transport)
hormones (insulin and glucagon help metabolize glucose)
hemoglobin (oxygen carrier in red blood cells)
transferrin (iron transport)
Marasmus- emaciated, bones showing, appears, effects individuals of all ages. Kwashiorkor-- swollen appears to be full because of distended belly, in babies 18 -24 months who have rapidly been weaned from breast feeding because mother has become pregnant again.
Describe the physical appearance of a child with the two types of protein-calorie malnutrition.
kidney disease, type 2 diabetes
What are two conditions that can occur in a person who takes in too much protein?
Identify foods high in purines.
organ meats liver brain, anchovies, asparagus, mushrooms and herring.
low-protein diet will be required--why? Cirrhosis of the liver is the inability to remove ammonia-a protein waste product. If ammonia levels rise dangerously high hepatic coma will result. therefore eating less reduces this risk.
Diet for cirrhosis patient with elevated blood ammonia levels
What are the things that can happen to a person who takes in too much protein? Identify at least 3-three.
1.it can lead to more Ca excretion when dietary Ca is inadequate thus predisposing one to osteoporosis;
2. it can place an excessive burden on the kidneys because nitrogenous wastes have to be excreted, leading to other health problems; it is high in saturated fat, thus increases the risk for CV disease;
3.and it can interfere with the intake of fruits, vegetables, and other whole grains because the individual is full from eating too much protein foods.
When would protein be wasted-not used as protein should be?
1. not enough energy from carbohydrate and fat.2. low-quality protein.3. too much protein
Calculate protein caloric content.
grams of protein * 4
Identify the plant vitamin A precursor.
Identify plant sources of vit A precursor
Rich source of vitamin A
ANIMAL- Milk or dairy group, i.e., whole milk, cheese, butter, cream, ice cream and margarine (vegetable oil-hydrogenated)
Meats--liver any kind, (beef, pork, veal, lamb, chicken, turkey) and egg yolk
Plant-Dark green & green leafy vegetables, i.e., kale, spinach, collard greens, broccoli, swiss chard, turnip greens
Deep orange or yellow vegetables-carrots, winter squash, sweet potatoes, pumpkin
Fruits-deep orange colored-apricots, persimmons, cantaloupe, papaya, peaches & pink grapefruit
Function of vitamin A
Maintenance of epithelial tissue-skin and mucous membranes (covers, lines, protects)
Essential constituent of visual purple-light sensitive pigment in the Rods of the eye (Retinol-Retina-Rods-Rhodopsin-pigment)
Needed for normal growth & development of skeletal and soft tissues; needed for normal reproduction
Needed for normal immune response
Prevents xeropthalmia, a chronic conjunctivitis, which can result in keratomalacia-total blindness
Vitamin A deficiency
Xerophthalmia or possible Keratomalacia
Dry skin and mucous membranes
Keratinized skin-rough, pimply, dry (like a toad's skin)
NOTE: Preschool children and the elderly are at greater risk for deficiency
Vitamin that acts like a hormone
Vitamin D deficiency affects what system?
Food sources of vitamin D
Fish liver oils, i.e., cod liver oil, shellfish, i.e., oysters, salmon, tuna, other seafood, egg yolk, liver, butter, margarine or milk-skim or whole (fortified with vit.D-added by irradiation)
What is the hormonal form of vitamin D?
Identify foods fortified with vitamin D
milk, margarine, cereals
Identify organs involved in vitamin D activation to its hormonal form.
liver and kidneys
Chemical name for vitamin E
Identify the functions of vitamin E
Antioxidant, protects polyunsaturated fatty acids present in the cell membrane from break-down
Factors that affect the vitamin E requirement
premature children with hemolytic anemia need more while other children have no rda set. , Contraindicated in patients on anticoagulants; will result in enhanced effect and prolonged bleeding
selenium it works with vit e as antioxidant. it spares vitamin e from oxidation and vitamin e spares selenium from oxidation, which reduces both dietary requirements
Vitamin E partners with what trace mineral. Why?...
Best sources of vitamin E
vegetable oils like wheat germ soybeans and safflower oil
it is contraindicated because vitamin k will work antagonistically
What is the diet modification in vitamin K needed by a patient taking anticoagulants?
What is the natural source of vitamin K?
intestinal bacteria, dark green leafy vegetables; soybean oil.
What effect may antibiotic therapy have in relation to vitamin synthesis?
long term use obliterates menaquinone a valuable source of vitamin deficiency.
What is the main function of vitamin K?
normal blood clotting and bone development
Signs of vitamin C deficiency
tissue bleeding, bone and joint bleeding, susceptibility to bone fractures, poor wound healing, soft bleeding gums with loosened teeth,
Major deficiency of vit. C
a disease in which pin point hemorrhages under the skin (petechiae), bruises (ecchymosis), bleeding gums, anorexia, skin tenderness, sore mouth, tenderness of knee joints, loosened teeth, and great weight loss occur NOTE: Elderly men, alcoholics, and smokers are at greater risk of being deficient in this vitamin.
Food sources of vitamin C
citrus fruits, red bell peppers, and kiwi.
Identify the characteristics of vitamin C
Most frequently deficient in the American diet
Most unstable water soluble vitamin which is very soluble in water, destroyed by heat, aging, drying, alkalis, copper, and oxidation
cigarettes are an environmental source of free radicals which disrupt the normal structure of dna, cho protein and fats. cigarette smokers deplete vit c because of increased free radical exposure and need to take additional 35 grams vit c
Effect of smoking on vitamin C in the body
describe indispensible amino acids (HILLMPTTV)
9 amino acids that the body can NOT make in sufficient quantity or at all.
describe dispensible amino acids (A SAGA)
5 amino acids that the body can synthesize from other amino acids, as long as the necessary building blocks and enzymes are present.
describe conditionally indispensible amino acids (ACGGPT)
6 amino acids that are normally synthesized in the body but in certain physiologic conditions (severe physioloic stress, illness and genetic disorders**PKU) must be consumed in the diet.
each protein chain adopts a folded form, which can fold and unfold according to metabolic need.
how do proteins maintain their solvency
an example of a disease caused by protein folding mistakes.
alzheimers, cystic fibrosis, cancer, type 2 diabetes,allergies
positive nitrogen balance
occurs when the body takes in more nitrogen than it ecretes thus storing more nitrogen (by building tissue) than it is losing (by breaking down tissue).***occurs normally during periods of rapid growth such as infancy childhood adolescence pregnancy and lactation.
negative nitrogen balance
occurs when the body takes in less nitrogen than it excretes. thus the body has inadequate protein intake and is losing nitrogen by breaking down more tissue than it is building up..***arises in states of illness and malnutrition
list the indispensible amino acids
histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, valine
list the dispensible amino acids
alanine, aspartic acid, aspatagine, glutamic acid, serrine
list the conditionally indispensable amino acids
arginine, cysteine, glutamine, glycine, proline, tyrosine
Serum proteins such as albumins and globulins help control water and pH balance
What is protein's role in water and pH balance?