Thylokoids are arranged in stacks called ___________. A singular stack is called a _________________.
organize clorophyll and other pigments into clusters called photosystems.
What do proteins in the thylakoid membrane do?
the light-dependent reactions and the light-independent reactions, or Calvin cycle.
The reactions of photosystems include:
The Calvin cycle takes place in the __________, which is the region _________ the thylakoid membranes.
the electrons gain a great deal of energy
What happens when electrons in chlorophyll absorb sunlight?
electron carriers, chlorophyll, molecules
Cells use ____________ ____________ to transport these high-energy electrons from ______________ to other _________________.
accepts, hydrogen. NADPH
NADP+ ____________ and holds 2 high-energy electrons along with a ___________ ion. This converts NADP+ into _________.
The conversion of NADP+ into _____________ is one way some of the energy from sunlight can be trapped in _______________ form.
carry the high-energy electrons to chemical reactions elsewhere in the cell.
After conversion, the NADPH will
The high energy electrons carried by the NADPH are used to build a variety of ___________________ the cell needs, including carbohydrates like ______________,
ADP, ATP, NADPH
The light-dependent reactions produce oxygen gas and convert __________ and NADP+ into the energy carriers _____________ and _______________.
Photosynthesis begins when ___________ in photosystem II absorb light, ________________ their energy level.
the electron transport chain
After the pigments absorb light in photosystem II the high energy electrons are passed on to
2H+ ions, oxygen atom, energized electrons
____________ on the thylakoid membrane break _________ molecules into:
the energized electrions from water molecules
What replaces the high energy electronns that chlorophyll loses to the electron transport chain/
hydrogen ions are released inside the thylakoid membrane.
What happens to the hydrogen ions left behind when water is broken apart?
Energy from the electrons is used to __________ H+ ions from the _______ into the inner thylakoid space.
electrons, photosystem I.
Hi-energy _____________ move through the electron transport chain from photosystem II to ________________.
After the electrons are re-energized in photosystem I they are picked up by ____________ along with H+ ions, and becomes ________________.
As electrons are passed from _______________ to NADP, more H+ ions are pumped across the membrane.
hydrogen ions, negatively
After the H+ ions are pumped across the membrane, the inside of the membrane fills up with positively charged ______________ _______, which makes the outside of the membrane _______________ charged.
The cell membrane contains a protein called ______ ___________ that allows H+ ions to pass through it.
As the protein rotates, ATP synthase binds ________ and a ___________ group together to produce ATP.
Light-dependent electron transport produces not only high-energy electrons, but _________ as well.
Oxygen,ATP, and NADPH provide the energy to build energy-containing ____________ from low-energy __________.
ATP, NADPH, stable, energy
__________ and ________ formed by ligh-dependent reactions contain an abundance of chemical energy, but they are not ____________ enough to store that ___________ for more than a few minutes.
use the energy that ATP and NADPH contain to build high-energy compounds that cannot be stored for a long time.
During the Calvin cycle plants
ATP, NADPH, high energy sugars
The Calvin cycle uses ______ and _________ from the light dependent reactions to produce ____________ __________ ___________.
they do not require light tp be produced
Why are the reactions in the Calvin cycle called the light-independent reactions?
6, atmosphere, carbon molecules
In the Calvin cycle, _____ carbon dioxide molecoles enter the cycle from the ____________ and combine with 5- ___________ _________________.
The result of the Calvin cycle is 12 ______-__________ molecules, which are then converted into higher-___________ forms.
The energy for the conversion in the Calvin cycle comes from ________ and high-energy ___________ from NADPH.
sugars, amino acids
The molecules removed from the Calvin cycle are used to produce ____________, lipids, __________ ________ and other compounds.
converted, carbon, cycle
The 10 remaining 3 carbon molecules in the Calvin Cycle are __________ back into six 5- ___________ molecules, which are used to begin the next ______________.
The light-dependent reactions trap __________ from the sun and change it to a ______________ form.
light independent, sugars, water
The ______________ _____________ reactions use the chemical energy to produce stable, high-energy ________________ from carbon dioxide and _____________.