Where does photosynthesis take place in plants?
Chloroplasts contain ____________, - saclike photosynthetic ________________.
Thylokoids are arranged in stacks called ___________. A singular stack is called a _________________.
organize clorophyll and other pigments into clusters called photosystems.
What do proteins in the thylakoid membrane do?
light-collecting units of the chloroplasts.
the light-dependent reactions and the light-independent reactions, or Calvin cycle.
The reactions of photosystems include:
within the thylakoid membranes
Where do the light-dependent reactions take place?
The Calvin cycle takes place in the __________, which is the region _________ the thylakoid membranes.
the electrons gain a great deal of energy
What happens when electrons in chlorophyll absorb sunlight?
electron carriers, chlorophyll, molecules
Cells use ____________ ____________ to transport these high-energy electrons from ______________ to other _________________.
Electron carriers, such as NADP+ , transport ___________ .
accepts, hydrogen. NADPH
NADP+ ____________ and holds 2 high-energy electrons along with a ___________ ion. This converts NADP+ into _________.
The conversion of NADP+ into _____________ is one way some of the energy from sunlight can be trapped in _______________ form.
carry the high-energy electrons to chemical reactions elsewhere in the cell.
After conversion, the NADPH will
The high energy electrons carried by the NADPH are used to build a variety of ___________________ the cell needs, including carbohydrates like ______________,
ADP, ATP, NADPH
The light-dependent reactions produce oxygen gas and convert __________ and NADP+ into the energy carriers _____________ and _______________.
Photosynthesis begins when ___________ in photosystem II absorb light, ________________ their energy level.
the electron transport chain
After the pigments absorb light in photosystem II the high energy electrons are passed on to
2H+ ions, oxygen atom, energized electrons
____________ on the thylakoid membrane break _________ molecules into:
the energized electrions from water molecules
What replaces the high energy electronns that chlorophyll loses to the electron transport chain/
Oxygen is left behind and released into the air
What happens as plants remove electrons from water?
hydrogen ions are released inside the thylakoid membrane.
What happens to the hydrogen ions left behind when water is broken apart?
Energy from the electrons is used to __________ H+ ions from the _______ into the inner thylakoid space.
electrons, photosystem I.
Hi-energy _____________ move through the electron transport chain from photosystem II to ________________.
Pigments in photosystem I use energy in light to re-energize the ____________.
After the electrons are re-energized in photosystem I they are picked up by ____________ along with H+ ions, and becomes ________________.
As electrons are passed from _______________ to NADP, more H+ ions are pumped across the membrane.
hydrogen ions, negatively
After the H+ ions are pumped across the membrane, the inside of the membrane fills up with positively charged ______________ _______, which makes the outside of the membrane _______________ charged.
The differences in charges across the membrane provides the energy to make _________.
H+ ions cannot ___________ the membrane directly.
The cell membrane contains a protein called ______ ___________ that allows H+ ions to pass through it.
As H+ ions pass through ATP synthase, the ____________ rotates.
As the protein rotates, ATP synthase binds ________ and a ___________ group together to produce ATP.
Light-dependent electron transport produces not only high-energy electrons, but _________ as well.
water, ADP, and NADP
What do light-dependent reactions use?
oxygen, ATP, and NADPH
What do light-dependent reactions produce?
Oxygen,ATP, and NADPH provide the energy to build energy-containing ____________ from low-energy __________.
ATP, NADPH, stable, energy
__________ and ________ formed by ligh-dependent reactions contain an abundance of chemical energy, but they are not ____________ enough to store that ___________ for more than a few minutes.
use the energy that ATP and NADPH contain to build high-energy compounds that cannot be stored for a long time.
During the Calvin cycle plants
ATP, NADPH, high energy sugars
The Calvin cycle uses ______ and _________ from the light dependent reactions to produce ____________ __________ ___________.
they do not require light tp be produced
Why are the reactions in the Calvin cycle called the light-independent reactions?
6, atmosphere, carbon molecules
In the Calvin cycle, _____ carbon dioxide molecoles enter the cycle from the ____________ and combine with 5- ___________ _________________.
The result of the Calvin cycle is 12 ______-__________ molecules, which are then converted into higher-___________ forms.
The energy for the conversion in the Calvin cycle comes from ________ and high-energy ___________ from NADPH.
Two of the twelve __-________ molecules are removed from the ___________.
sugars, amino acids
The molecules removed from the Calvin cycle are used to produce ____________, lipids, __________ ________ and other compounds.
converted, carbon, cycle
The 10 remaining 3 carbon molecules in the Calvin Cycle are __________ back into six 5- ___________ molecules, which are used to begin the next ______________.
The light-dependent reactions trap __________ from the sun and change it to a ______________ form.
light independent, sugars, water
The ______________ _____________ reactions use the chemical energy to produce stable, high-energy ________________ from carbon dioxide and _____________.
availability of water, temperature, and intensity of light.
What factors affect photosynthesis?