Research and Health
|Categories of Research||Pure, clinical, applied, descriptive, laboratory, experimental|
|The research process|| 1. Problem identification or idea|
2. Review of literature
3. Developing question and hypothesis
4. Research design
5. Conducting research
6. Collection and interpretation
|Definition of critical appraisal||The impartial assessment of one or more research papers to determine strengths, weaknesses and benefits.|
|Literature Review||critical summary of research on topic, often prepared to put research problem in context or to summarize existing evidence|
|Five steps of EBP|| 1. Ask an answerable question|
2. Acquire the best available evidence
3. Appraise the evidence
4. Apply the evidence
5. Assess the process
|What are the different types of research designs?||RCTs, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, quasi-experimental studies, descriptive or qualitative studies.|
|Descriptive research designs|| "Describes health status of a population"|
Case report, case series, descriptive epidemiological study, ethnographic study
|Analytical research designs|| "Identifies causes of diseases"|
Observation vs experimental design
|Observation Research design||cohort study (retrospective and prospective), case-control study, cross-sectional study, longitudinal designs|
|Experimental research design||RCT, quasi-experimental.|
|RCT||randomly allocated groups-study and control groups: intervention and non-intervention group|
|Quasi-experimental||Control procedures but no random assignment, weaker internal validity but stronger external validity because they can be carried out in more natural settings.|
|Case report||Type of descriptive research in which only one individual is studied in depth, often retrospectively.|
|Case series||Detailed description of a case/ group of cases can help identify potential health problems|
|Descriptive epidemiological study|| -occurrence of disease|
-place and time the disease occurred
-generally is retrospective (data is collected after episode is over)
-backtrack to cause (can take years)
-example: AIDS is more prevalent in people living in crowded conditions, poor nutrition, alcohol abuse, etc.
|Ethnographic study||in depth study of a culture, which uses a combination of methods including participant observation|
|Cohort study||A type of epidemiologic study where a group of exposed individuals (individuals who have been exposed to the potential risk factor) and a group of non-exposed individuals are followed over time to determine the incidence of disease|
|Case-control study||A type of epidemiologic study where a group of individuals with the diseases, referred to as cases, are compared to individuals without the disease, referred to as controls|
|Cross-sectional study||research method in which data is collected from groups of participants of different ages and compared so that conclusions can be drawn about differences due to age|
|Longitudinal designs||same group is followed over a period of time, predictions are possible, patterns can be established|
|Systematic review||A review of the literature, in which all available research studies on a particular topic are identified, analysed and synthesised|
|Strength of evidence|| 1. Systematic review of RCTs|
3. Cohort study
4. Case-control study
5. Cross-section study
6. Case reports/case series
|Confounding Bias||occurs with 2 closely associated factors; the effect of 1 factor distorts or confuses the effect of the other|
|Descriptive research design|| Qual. "Interpretive".|
can attempt to measure thoughts, feelings, or behaviors.
surveys and interviews. polls/census "describe population" and feelings/attitudes of population
- phenomenology, ethnography
-mixed with critical: grounded theory, narrative analysis
|Critical research design|| Qual.|
"Causing change to the status quo"
- participatory action research, feminist
-mixed with descriptive: grounded theory, narrative analysis
|Phenomenology|| Intentional analysis of everyday experience from the standpoint of the person who is living it; explores the possibility of understanding the experience of self and others|
(what is the nature of...? what is it like to experience...?)
|Ethnography||A detailed description of a particular culture primarily based on fieldwork.|
|Participatory action research|| NOT A THEORY. A research framework.|
Research cycle: observe, reflect, plan and act.
Involves all the people in the research but does so with the explicit recognition of power issues and has a goal of transforming society (transformative)
|Feminist research||A type of critical social sciences that advocates action-oriented research. It views the social world as a web of social relations based on mutual obligations, and it rejects positivism as having many assumptions that are male oriented.|
|Grounded theory|| research to understand social structures and social processes; this method focuses on generation of categories or hypotheses that explain patterns of behavior of people in the study|
(what is the social process underlying...?)
|Narrative analysis|| Researcher collects descriptions of events through interviews and observations and synthesizes them into narratives or stories.|
Story is the outcome of the study.
Analysis of narrative
Researcher collects stories as data and seeks to understand underlying themes from the stories.
|Mixed method||Combination of quantitative and qualitative methodologies. "Q2"|
|Data collection||Methods of collecting data for research. Includes: interview, focus group, questionnaire.|
|Interview|| informal (unstructured)|
-ves: time consuming, difficult for novice, exhausting , inconsistent.
|Focus group|| 6-8 people (4-12)|
1-2 hours, may need multiple sessions.
|Questionnaire|| NOT A SURVEY|
Highly structured interview
|Discrete||items in a basket, people in a room (e.g. 3)|
|Continuous||weight, age (e.g. 19.48938, 56.38)|
|Nominal||male/female, post codes (no mathematical function)|
|Ordinal||1st, 2nd, 3rd, for movies (4s is better than three etc.)|
|Interval||body temp, IQ (has to be a certain number)|
|Double barreled questions|| Don't ask in qual research.|
e.g. "do you like ___ and ___?"
|Limited possible responses|| Don't ask in qual research.|
e.g. "what pain relief do you use? panadol/nurofen"
|Leading questions|| Don't ask in qual research.|
e.g. "wouldn't you agree that nurses do a heroic job?"
|Abbreviations|| Don't ask in qual research.|
e.g. "what do you know about SARS?"
|Emotional language|| Don't ask in qual research.|
e.g. "What should be done about the murderous terrorists who threaten the freedom and safety of law abiding citizens?"
|Negatives|| Don't ask in qual research.|
e.g. "is it not a good idea to not turn in assignments on time?"
|Prestige influence|| Don't ask in qual research.|
e.g. "most doctors say _____. Do you agree?"
|Assumed knowledge|| Don't ask in qual research.|
e.g. "What is your opinion on the social security laws the state government is currently discussing?"
|Overlapping questions|| Don't ask in qual research.|
e.g. "where did you grow up? country/farm/town/city"
|Open ended questions|| Can be used in either qual or quan research.|
"How did you find your home exercises?"
"How did you feel about the therapy you received?"
|Closed questions|| Yes/no, M/F etc.|
|Multiple choice|| A|
|Scales|| Visual Analogue scales|
0 1 2 3 4 5 (circle one)
:) :| :(
no pain___________________worst pain
|Adjectival scales|| Disagree Neutral Agree|
    
Usually have 5 or 7, extremes or neutral.
Have 4 if everyone is going to be neutral - forced to make a choice
|Likert scale|| Strong disagree neutral agree strong|
1 2 3 4 5
|Semantic differential scale|| unipolar (sweet/not sweet, creative/not creative)|
bipolar (sweet/sour, creative/unoriginal)
|Self Administration||Done by participant|
|Validity|| the ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure|
"Did the research measure what it was supposed to?"
Research can be valid, but not reliable (e.g. a ruler with no mm marked, people will say different things when measuring - valid, but not reliable).
|Reliability|| the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, or on retesting|
"Is the research dependable and consistent?"
If the test is redone, will is get the same results?
|Internal validity||Are the results believable?|
|External validity|| To what extent can the results be applied to other groups/individuals in other contexts?|
e.g. most health research cannot be generalized because specific populations are chosen rather than a random sample of the population.
|Dependability||Are the results consistent?|
|Four key ethical research prinicples|| 1. Respecting autonomy|
|Respecting autonomy||The person makes an informed decision about being involved|
|Beneficence||The obligation to provide benefits|
|Non-maleficence||Avoiding the intention to cause harm or discomfort|
|Justice||The concept that benefits, risks and costs are equitably distributed.|
|Epidemiology||branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect large numbers of people|