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Liberty University English 102 Mrs. Tweedy's Final Exam study Guide... Poems

1st Person Voice

Inside speackers use this voice and are involved in action of the poem

3rd Person Voice

Speaker is outside the poem simply telling what is going on.

Listener

Not the reader- person whom the reader addresses directly inside the poem.

Dialogue

two people in the poem- characters are both speakers and listeners.

Dramatic Monologue

the speaker talks directly to an on the spot listener whose reactions may effect the course of the poem.

Figures of Speech

Metaphorical Language

Metaphor

Equates known objects or actions with something unknown or to be explained latter merges identities

Simile

shows similarity or compatibility of the known to something unknown or to be explained

Paradox

A figurative language device where something wrong or contradictory is shown to be truthful and non contradictory

Anaphora

Repetition of the same word or phrase throughout a work or a section of the work to give weight to its meaning and emphasis where needed

Apostrophe

speaker in the poem talks to a real or imaged listener who is not present

personification

human traits are given to non- human object or abstracts

synecdoche

part stands for the whole or the whole stands for a part

metonymy

substitute one thing for another with which it is closely identified

pun

words having similar sounds but different meanings

Paranomasia

Words used for the same sounds but different or contradictory meanings

Synethesia

Poet describe feelings or perceptions with words that usually refer to a different or opposite feeling or perception

Overstatement

Exaggeration for effect

Understatement

Deliberate undervaluing of a thing

Tone

Creation of an attitude in Poetry

Form

Words- Phrases- express a Poet's ideas

Poetic Irony

Makes a point by emphasizing a discrepancy or opposite, allows you to understand and to feel

Verbal irony

Carried out in poetry through word selection, points of ambiguity and discrepancies

Situational Irony

Carried out through discrepancies between the ideal and the actual.

Dramatic Irony

Built on the ignorance of the characters and the greater knowledge of the reader.

Satire

Designed to expose human follies and vices

Idea

in Poetry the main ideas presented by the poem as a whole

Theme

a motif it is repeated and developed in the poem

Meaning

Sense or message of the poem as a whole

Prosody

Study of poetic sounds and rhythms

Schwa

minimal vowel sound

Dipthong

Meaningful sound that begins with the one vowel sound and then is completed by movement to another vowel sound

Spelling =

Graphics

Pronunciation=

Phonetics

Heavy Stress

Uses the accented stress mark (/) more intense syllables that determine accent/ beat in a poetic line

Light stress

unaccented syllable( U) less intense syllables

/ is used to

separate one foot from another in poetry

scansion

scanning a poem- informs on how the poem establishes its metrical pattern and variations in that pattern

meter =

# of feet in a line

5 feet =

pentameter

4 feet =

tetrameter

3 feet =

trimeter

2 feet =

diameter

1 foot =

monometer

iamb =

one light stress followed by one heavy stress ( light/ heavy)

Trochee =

Heavy/ light

Spondee =

Heavy/ heavy

Onomatopoeia

Suggests or imitates an action

Rhyme

Words contain identical final syllables in sound

Exact Rhyme

Final syllables are identical in spelline in sound

Internal rhyme

Rhyming within individual lines

Quatrains

4 lines sections of a poem

haiku

Topic is derived from nature

Line Syllables

5 syllables in the 1st line- 7 in the second, 5 in the third

Epigram

2 to 4 lines long, witty satiric poetry

Epitaph

Lines composed to mark the death of someone

Limerick

5 lines comic and bawdy poetry.

Persona

is the speaker of the poem not always a person

Metaphor

ex. You are the sunshine of my life

Simile

ex. You are like sunshine in my life

Apostrophe

ex. Public speech with readers as the audience

Personification

ex. "Everyman" faith is a character

Synecdoche

ex. All hands aboard

Metonymy

ex. Hollywood- when used to mean the whole movie industry

Synethesia

ex. a darkness that is visible- a soul that claps its hands

Overstatement

ex. England is a fen/ of stagnant waters- the whole country is morally corrupt

Understatement

ex. The grave's a fine and private place, but none, I think, do there embrace

Verbal Irony

ex. Papa's waltz- refers to a poem which a father scoops up his child and whirls him around while drunk and yelling

Situational Irony

ex. The wood of the sewing box is also wood used to make her dead boyfriend's coffin

Dramatic Irony

ex. " The Workbox" the husband remains unsure of his wife's feelings about him, but the reader believes they know because of the wife's actions in the final stanza

Idea

ex. idea of goodness- idea of time passage

Meaning

ex. Take advantage of time while you are young

Schwa

ex. The "e" in "the boy"

Dipthong

ex. ia- appliance ou- house, snout oi- foil

Light stress

ex. -ter in Wa-ter

iamb

ex. the winds

Trochee

ex. Running, Dancing

Spondee

ex. Men's eyes-- We real cool

alliteration

ex. Brazen, Brainless, brothers

Onomatopoeia

ex. Buzz, Bump

Rhyme

ex. Bouquet, fiance

Exact Rhyme

ex. yearn, learn

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