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animals in the poles

Animals that live in the Arctic and/or Antarctica are adapted to extreme conditions. Many animals that stay over winter in the poles have a coat that thickens and changes colour to white during the winter as camouflage in the snow. Some animals hibernate during the cold season. These animals often hibernate in an underground burrow or pit. Many animals spend the summer months in the poles, but leave as the weather turns frigid and food becomes scarce.
Antarctic:

Penguins
Seals
Whales
Krill
Albatross
Snow Petrel
Tern
Walrus

Cold climates?

The world climate zones- there are three cold climates:
Tundra
Arctic
Antarctic
there are many factores influencing cold climates:
It is isolated, and there are minimal resources, there is harsh weather for example: high winds and blizzards, sparsley populated so there is no extra heat being produced and there is minimal popultion from humans.

Tundra

What is Tundra?
*permanently frozen grounds
*water cant drain away when top layer thaws in the summer-bogs
*Tundra area include Alaska and Siberia

Polar

What is Polar?
*Extremely cold throughout the year
*Coldest places in the earth
*They are barren and icy landscapes
*Polare areas include the two poles

Alpine

What is Alpine?
*They are high mountain areas
*Experience very cold temperature
*Alpine areas include Himalayas, Rockies and Alps

Adaptation of vegetation and Tundra

Lichen have adapted by growing on rocks. Instead of big plants, there is algae. The Antarctic is the coldest place on earth and not much grows there. You may find: Lichen covered rock, Algae and moss.
Tundra Plants:
Lichen
Heaths
Perennial
Cotton Grass
These are examples of some tundra plants. Plants have to adapt to these conditions(eg.short roots). Sometimes dwarf trees grow but, they tend to grow horizontally to get as much heat from the grownd and to avoid winds.
Other adaptations are- Flowers grow close to the ground, hair covering the plants, Flowers 'cup' to face the sun.

Adaptations of animals

-Animals have to be adapted to the extreme cold.
-Some have thick coats (polar bears)
-Others have ears and a short rounded body (shrew/wolves) this reduces the area of the body being exposed to the cold temp.
-Many camoflage themselves in the snow(White arctic fox)
-Many birds migrate from the Artcic during the winter months (snow owl)

Adaptations of inuits

How did they adapt?
Fur of the caribou
Fur of seals
Fur of polar bear
Normal clothes
Boots made of seal skin- called 'Kamiks'
these are all warm clothes made from animals in the surrounding areas in which the inuits live in. they have adapted the clothes they are wearing to make sure that they stay warm. Inuits have adapted to eating the animals that live around them. They use all of the body parts for something so they never waste anything. these are examples of what they eat: Narwhal, Seals, herring, Fox, Musk Ox, Caribou, Fish.
Inuits travel in Kayaks, Umiaks, Snowshoes, Dogsleds, Snow Skiis.

Glaciers-Features

Eratic- erratics are rocks and boulders carried by the ice and deposited in an area of totally different rock type
Drumlin- Smooth elongated pieces of material formed parrallel to the direction of ice movement. Come from load becoming to heavy and then being deposited at the bottom and then gets a streamlined shape from the moving ice.
Esker-Meandering ridge of sand and gravel. Formed by meltwater.
Kame- mounds of sorted debris
Kettle Hole- Where the glacier has eroded down then on top forms cay but the clay will sink downwards.
Outwash plain- flat land where the meltwater from the glacier deposites materials which are carried by the glacier.

Landforms 1

*unlike a river, a glacier fills the whole valley giving it more erasive power.
*steep u-shaped valleys are called a glacial trough.
*hanging valley- a tributary valley left hanging above the main vally and creating a waterfall.
*truncates spurs- as the glacier moves downill it removes the ends of interlocking spurs to leave steep, cliff like, truncated spurs.
*ribbon lake- long narrow deep lake found at the bottom of the valley floor. These occur when the glacier over deepens a part of the valley.

Landforms 2

1. Corries- deep rounded hollows with a steep backwall and a rock basin, often found with a lake in them(tarn). these form in glacial highlands.
2. Arete- steep knife edged ridge between 2 corries.
3. Pyramid peak- a triangular shaped mountain formed by three or more corries cutting backwards into the mountain.

Erosion

*Abrasion is when the material carried by the glacier rubs against and like sandpaper wears away the sides and the floor of the valley. It is similar to corrasion by a river but on a much larger scale.
*Plucking- results from glacial ice freezing onto solid rock and as the glacier moves away, it pulls with it large pieces of rock.
*freeze thaw is where water enters into cracks in rocks. the water then freezes and expands. it eventually will shatter the rock because the rock has become to weak.

The glacier system

Where an imput exceeds and output this is known as the zone of accumilation .
Where an output exceeds an input, it is known as the zone of abblation.

Inputs and outputs in a glacier

INPUTS- Precipitation, Snow, Avalanches
STORE- Ice
FLOW- Transfer (glacial movement downhill)
OUTPUTS- Meltwater, Evapouration

Morain

Lateral morain- material derived from freeze thaw, carried at the side of the glacier.
Medial morain- centre of the glacier, results from two lateral morains joining together.
Ground morain- material dragged underneath a glacier. when deposited, it forms a flat valley floor.
Terminal morain- marks where the glacier has stopped advancing. It is material deposited at the snout/end of the glacier. If the glacier remains stationary then the terminal morain will build up alot.
Recessional morain- form behind and parrallel to the terminal morain. They mark interuptions where the glacier stopped for a while.

Antarctica

Situated at the bottom of the earth
The Antarctic Treaty- it protects Antarctica from development because it is earths last great wilderness. it stopps many things happening:
Global warming because there is no climate change.
Pollution
Food chain damage/destroyed
Tourisme
Over fishing
Mining for oil...
Development for humans

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