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health promotion

help clients maintain and enhance their present levels of health, motivate people to act positively

passive strategies of health promotion

individuals gaining from the activities of others without acting themselves

active strategies of health promotion

individuals are motivated to adopt specific health programs

wellness

teaches people how to care for themselves in a healthy way, such as physical awareness, stress management, and self-responsibility

illness prevention

protect clients from actual or potential threats to health

health

a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity; a state of being that people define in relation to their own values, personality, and lifestyle

positive health behavior

immunizations, proper sleep patterns, adequate exercise, and nutrition

negative health behavior

smoking, drug or alcohol abuse, poor diet, and refusal to take medications

health beliefs

a person's ideas, convictions, and attitudes about health and illness that influence their health behavior

health care system challenges

rising costs, increased access to services, growing population, improved quality outcomes, threats of bioterrorism

illness

a state in which a person's physical, emotional, intellectual, social, developmental, or spiritual functioning is diminished or impaired

acute illness

short duration and severe

chronic illness

persists longer than 6 months

illness behavior

involves how people monitor their bodies, define and interpret their symptoms, take remedial actions, and use the healthcare system

internal variables acting on illness

perception of illness and nature of illness

external variables acting on illness

visibility of symptoms, social group, cultural background, economics, and accessibility to health care

impact of illness

on the client and family: behavioral and emotional changes, impact on body image, impact on self-concept, impact on family roles, impact on family dynamics

health belief model

addresses relationship between a person's beliefs and behaviors; three components: the individual's perception of susceptibility, individual's perception of seriousness, and the liklihood a person will take preventive action

health promotion model

describes the multidimensional nature of persons as they interact within their environment to pursue health, focusing on three areas: individual characteristics and experiences, behavior-specific knowledge and affect, and behavioral outcomes

basic human needs model

a hierarchy of elements that are necessary for survival and health, beginning with physiological needs, safety and security needs, love and belonging needs, self-esteem needs, and self-actualization needs

holistic health model

attempts to create conditions that promote optimal health by considering the client as the ultimate expert regarding their own health

risk factors

variables that increase the vulnerability of an individual or group to an illness

genetic and physiological risk factors

physical risk factors that involve the physical functioning of the body, such a being pregnant or overweight; and genetic predisposition to a specific illness

age risk factors

increases and decreses susceptibility to certain illnesses

environment risk factors

where we live and the condition of that area (water, air, and soil) determine how we live, what we eat, the disease agents we are exposed to, our state of health, and our ability to adapt

lifestyle risk factors

activities, habits, or practices that have a positive or negative impact on health

primary level of prevention

true prevention that lowers the chances that a disease will develop, given to healthy people (immunizations, education, physical activities)

secondary level of prevention

focuses on those who have a disease or are AT RISK to develop a disease, in an attempt to gain prompt intervention

tertiary level of prevention

occurs when a defect or disability is permanent or irreversible, includes minimizing the effects of the disease or disability by interventions directed at preventing complications and deterioration

preventive health care setting

outpatient services for screening

primary health care setting

individual health care and wellness education

secondary and tertiary health care setting

acute care, hospital, disease management

restorative health care setting

regain function

continuing health care setting

long term - disibility or terminal

goals of Healthy People 2010

increase quality and years of life and to eliminate health disparities

focus areas of Healthy People 2010

promoting health behaviors, promoting healthy and safe communities, improving systems for personal and public health, and preventing and reducing diseases and disorders

precontemplation

no intention to change a health behavior

contemplation

considering a change a health behavior within the next 6 months

preparation

making small changes to a health behavior

action

actively engaging in strategies to change change a health behavior

maintenance

maintaining a changed health behavior

impact on emotional changes

reactions depend on the nature of the illness, the client's attitude toward it, the reaction of others to it, and the variables of illness behavior

impact on body image

client and family reaction depends on the type of changes, their adaptive capacity, the rate at which the changes takes place, and the support services available

impact on self-concept

mental self image of strengths and weaknesses that depends on body image and roles

impact on family roles

role reversals are popular, resulting in stress, conflicting responsibilities, or conflict over decision making

impact on family dynamics

way in which families function, make devisions, and provide support changes

developmental state

must consider the client's level of growth and development when planning care

intellectual background

care shaped by person's knowledge, lack of knowledge, or incorrect knowledge about body functions and illness, educational background, and past experiences

perception of functioning

the way a client perceives their level of functioning

emotional factors

a client's degree of stress, depression, or fear can influence health beliefs and practices

spiritual factors

how a person lives their life, that may impact forms of medical treatment

family practices

the way a client's family uses health care services affects their health practices

socioeconomic factors

increase the risk for illness and influence the way a person defines and reacts to illness

cultural background

influences beliefs, values, and customs, and influences the approach to the health care system, personal health practices, and the nurse-client relationship

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