Chapter 1: Science as Way of Learning: A Guide to the Natural World

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When Pasteur tested the hypothesis of spontaneous generation, he compared the ability of a sterilized growth medium (meat broth) to produce a population of bacteria in two different types of flasks. One had a simple neck open to the outside, and the other had a "goose neck" bend that also was open to the environment. Pasteur expected that bacteria would appear in the flask with the standard neck. In this experiment, the standard neck flask served as a/an:

control.

The questions that can be answered by science are:

limited by what can be investigated using the scientific method.

Because scientists are in the business of investigating nature, scientists function as:

society's eyes and ears on the natural world.

The liver releases glucose into the bloodstream if you don't eat for a long time. This represents an example of a characteristic possessed by all living things. Which is it?

maintaining a relatively constant internal environment

A scientific finding is believed to be true until new evidence arises. This view is referred to as:

provisional assent.

Which of the following is a theory?

There is molecular and biochemical evidence that all organisms are related

If you flip the light switch in your living room and nothing happens, what might be a good hypothesis to explain the absence of light?

The circuit breaker for the living room might be the "off" position.

Imagine you're a biology instructor lecturing to a group of students interested in ecology, the branch of biology that studies interactions between organisms and their environments. The students complain bitterly that they're not interested in atoms and molecules because these are irrelevant to their interests. As a responsible instructor aiming to provide a complete and meaningful education, you would state:

"You need to study atoms and molecules because the organization of life is hierarchical; this implies that, to understand the complex (ecology), you first need to understand the simpler underlying levels."

The role of a control in an experiment is to:

provide a basis of comparison to an experimental group.

What is the difference between a tissue and an organ system?

An organ system includes tissues.

A good hypothesis must:

be falsifiable.

Organelles are:

like tiny organs within cells.

Evolution allows us to explain:

both the diversity of life and how all living things are related.

Tissues are grouped together in functional units called:

organs.

Which scientist disproved the theory of spontaneous generation?

Pasteur

Science presents society with ________, about which society then makes decisions.

options

Which of the following is the most complex level of organization?

a rainforest

A tree in your backyard is home to robins, squirrels, beetles, and lichens. Together all these organisms compose a/an:

community

Which of the following is the correct order of complexity, going from least to most complex?

atom, molecule, organelle, cell, tissue, organ

We use the scientific method every day. Imagine your car doesn't start one morning before school. Which of these is a reasonable hypothesis regarding the problem?

I'm out of gas.

Which of the following is true?

A scientific theory explains what we know to this date about a natural event.

The difference between a theory and a hypothesis is that a:

theory must be supported by evidence.

Which one of the following is true about scientific knowledge?

Scientific knowledge is not absolute, because the possibility is always held open that new experiments may one day prove it wrong.

Which of the following is an example of how living things assimilate energy?

eating a meal

What invention by Bell Labs in 1947 brought about modern electronics?

the invention of the transistor

A scientific explanation that is tentative and requires more investigation is termed a/an:

hypothesis.

Biology developed as a science later than physics because:

the living world is tremendously diverse compared to the non-living world.

Living things inherit information from their parents encoded in:

DNA.

Which of the following is at the root cause for all cancers?

a breakdown of the cell division process

The questions that can be answered by science are:

limited by what can be investigated using the scientific method.

Imagine you're a biology instructor lecturing to a group of students interested in ecology, the branch of biology that studies interactions between organisms and their environments. The students complain bitterly that they're not interested in atoms and molecules because these are irrelevant to their interests. As a responsible instructor aiming to provide a complete and meaningful education, you would state:

"You need to study atoms and molecules because the organization of life is hierarchical; this implies that, to understand the complex (ecology), you first need to understand the simpler underlying levels."

The liver releases glucose into the bloodstream if you don't eat for a long time. This represents an example of a characteristic possessed by all living things. Which is it?

maintaining a relatively constant internal environment

What is the difference between a tissue and an organ system?

An organ system includes tissues.

Which scientist disproved the theory of spontaneous generation?

Pasteur

Which of the following is a theory?

There is molecular and biochemical evidence that all organisms are related.

The role of a control in an experiment is to:

provide a basis of comparison to an experimental group.

A tree in your backyard is home to robins, squirrels, beetles, and lichens. Together all these organisms compose a/an:

community.

Which of the following is the most complex level of organization?

a rainforest

Which of the following is true?

A scientific theory explains what we know to this date about a natural event.

A good hypothesis must:

be falsifiable.

Which of the following is the correct order of complexity, going from least to most complex?

atom, molecule, organelle, cell, tissue, organ

Which of the following is an example of how living things assimilate energy?

eating a meal

What invention by Bell Labs in 1947 brought about modern electronics?

the invention of the transistor

If you flip the light switch in your living room and nothing happens, what might be a good hypothesis to explain the absence of light?

The circuit breaker for the living room might be the "off" position.

Choose the answer that best describes the sequence of the scientific method.

observation, hypothesis, experiment, conclusion

Because scientists are in the business of investigating nature, scientists function as:

society's eyes and ears on the natural world.

Science presents society with ________, about which society then makes decisions.

options

A scientific finding is believed to be true until new evidence arises. This view is referred to as:

provisional assent.

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