Chemistry Final

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Flashcards for review

Straight line path, random constant motion,elastic collisions,very small, insignificant volume.

What are the major point of the Kinetic Molecular Theory?

Gases are more spread out than liquids.

How are gases and liquids different according to KMT.

The higher the temp. the more the kinetic energy and pressure it has. less volume=more kinetic energy, volume also increases.

How does a change in temp. affect the kinetic energy, the pressure, and volume of gas molecules.

Pressure vs. Volume indirect.

What is boyles law graph?

Volume vs. Temp. Direct.

What is Charles Law graph?

P v. T Directtttt.

What is Gay Lussacs graph?

solids have the strongest IMF's, Gases have the weakest.

Compare intermolecular forces between a solid, liquid, and gas.

Most ordered, low energy, slow, to and fro motion.

Describe the characteristics of Solids.

Somewhat ordered, sliding past, medium.

Describe the characteristics of Liquids.

Least ordered, high energy,fast, all over random movements.

Describe the characteristics of Gases.

Ionic compounds have higher melting points.

Compare the boiling points of Ionic and Covalent compounds.

Freezing point is depressed when adding substance, boiling point is raised when adding substance.

What is freezing point depression, boiling point elevation?

Clear in an acid, pink in a base.

How does phenolphthalein change in acids & bases?

Red in an acid, blue in a base.

How does litmus paper change in acids & bases?

Take the -log (ex:-log(4e-7)

How do you calculate the pH of a solution?

Sour,H+, reacts with bases to make water and salt.

What are the characteristics of acids?

Bitter, Slippery, ends in OH-.

What are the characteristics of bases?

Form with water to make sulfuric acid.

How do sulfur oxides contribute to acid rain?

NO2 reacts with water.

How is nitric acid formed in the atmosphere?

Sulfur dioxides and Nitrogen oxides.

What is needed to produce acid rain?

Melting=endothermic, Vaporization=endothermic, Sublimation=endothermic,Deposition=exothermic,Freezing=exothermic,Condensation=exothermic.

what phases of the water cycle are endothermic? exothermic?

They get stronger.

How do the intermolecular forces change as you go down the halogen group?

On the left.

Where is energy placed in an endothermic equation?

On the right.

Where is energy placed in an exothermic equation?

It is positive.

How does delta H change change in an endothermic reaction?

It is negative.

How does delta H change in an exothermic equation?

The amount of energy it takes to raise 1g of a substance 1 degree celcius.

What is specific heat?

High specific heat takes longer to heat up, low specific heat cools down the fastest

What is the difference between high & low specific heat?

Melting is occuring. attractive forces are being overcome.

What is happening at #2 in the time vs. temperature graph?

warming of the liquid.

What is happening at #3 in the time vs. temperature graph?

Melting and evaporation.

What phase changes are happening in the time vs. temperature graph?

The air gets hot causing the volume to increase and the pressure to decrease.

What happens to the air inside the tires on a car on a hot day?

Increase=increase in size, decrease=decrease in size.

What happens to the volume of a balloon if the temp. of the air is increased? decreased?

Big container=low, Small container=high.

Is the pressure low or high in a big container? in a small container?

Water and a salt.

What are the products of an acid/base reaction?

The answer you get will be the pOH, not the pH.

What will happen if you have OH in an equation?

Yes

If the pH of a solution is 0-6.99 is it acidic?

No, basic.

If the pH of a solution is7.99-14 is it acidic?

To decrease the freezing point of the water and or snow.

Why is salt applied to icy roads?

Ionic compound that doesnt have H+ or OH-

What is a "salt"?

Because evaporation takes more energy then melting.

Why is segment 4 longer then segment 2 on the time vs. temp. graph?

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