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1st Amendment

freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition

2nd Amendment

the right to bear arms

3rd Amendment

One can not be forced to quarter Soldiers

4th Amendment

Freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures

5th Amendment

right to grand jury, indictment, no double jeopardy, freedom from self-incrimination, due process of law

6th Amendment

right to a speedy and public trial. right to a fair jury. right to know what you are being accused of. right to see/hear witnesses against you. right to have a witness to help defend you. right to a lawyer.

7th Amendment

Right to a trial by jury

8th Amendment

no cruel or unusual punishment

9th Amendment

rights not mentioned in the constitution belong to the people

10th Amendment

powers not given to the federal govenment are given to states or people

12th Amendment

added the seperation of the president and vice president onto two different ballots

Bicameral

a legislature consisting of two parts, or houses

Bill of Rights

The first ten amendments to the Constitution

Constitution

Supreme law of the land for the United States

Elastic Clause

a clause that allows Congress to stretch the use of its powers

Federalism

division of power between the national and state governments

Federalist Papers

Series of essays that defended the Constitution and tried to reassure Americans that the states would not be overpowered by the federal government.

Impeach

charge with a crime or misdemeanor

Inalienable Rights

"natural rights"; life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness

Marbury v. Madison

established concept of judicial review, first time supreme court declared something 'unconstitutional'

Mayflower Compact

first document in the America for self-government

McCulloch v. Maryland

Supreme Court case which validated the constitutionality of the Bank of the United States, denying states' rights to tax it

Nationalism

love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it

Ratify

to approve

Separation of Powers

the division of power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government

Checks and Balances

A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power

13 th amendment

Abolished slavery

14th amendment

Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws

15th amendment

citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude

Tet offensive

1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment

Mass production

the production of large quantities of a standardized article (often using assembly line techniques)

17th amendment

Direct election of senators

Pendleton act

Passed in 1883, an Act that created a federal civil service so that hiring and promotion would be based on merit rather than patronage.

Interstate commerce act

Established the ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission) - monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states - created to regulate railroad prices

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