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cell vocab/functions etc...

Cell Theory

idea that all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, and new cells are produced from existing cells

5 Characteristics of a Living Organism

adaptation/ to expel waste/death/ reproduction/ produce energy

Eukaryotic Cells

contain a nucleus and other organelles that are bound by membranes

Prokaryotic Cells

cells without a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles

Diffusion

the movement of particles from regions of higher density to regions of lower density

Concentration

the amount of particles in a given space

Osmosis

diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane

Unicellular Organisms

organisms made of only one cell

6 Nutrient Groups

water/ minerals/ proteins/ vitamins/ carbohydrates/ fats

Permeable Membrane

a cell membrane, which allows all particles to enter and leave the cell.

Selectively permeable Membrane

a membrane that keeps out some particles but allows others to pass through

Impermeable Membrane

a membrane that does not allow any particles to pass through

Cells have __________ membrane

a selectively permeable membrane

Levels of Organization

cells/ tissues/ muscles/ organs/ organ systems

Allergens

an antigen that can cause an allergy

Vaccines

dead or weakened pathogens that are injected into the body to cause the production of antibodies that will prevent disease

Diff. between antigens and antibodies

antigens cause the disease and antibodies cure it

Antigens

foreign substances that trigger the attack of antibodies in the immune system

Antibodies

substances produced by the body to prevent disease and fight off antigens

Pathogens

disease producing unicellular organisms

Body System Hierarchy

chemical level/ cellular level/ tissue level/ organ level/ system level/ organism level

Organelle

a cell structure in which functions are carried out to ensure the cells survival

Cytoplasm

jelly-like substance within the cell

Nucleus

the organelle that controls the cell

DNA

carries the heredity material that is passed on from generation to generation

Mitochondria

energy producers of the cell (carry out cellular respiration)

Cellular Respiration

occurs when the chemical energy we take in through the food we eat is changed into energy that cells use to carry out their activities

Metabolism

total of all chemical reactions that take place in our cells

Proteins

essential to all life
building blocks for a variety of structures in the cell

Ribosomes

assemble proteins

Endoplasmic Reticulum

membrane covered channels

Golgi Body

sorts proteins and packs them into membrane wrapped structures (vesticles)

Vesticles

smaller than vacuoles
carry proteins in/out of the cell

Vacuole

temporary storage compartments

Lysosme

contains digestive chemicals that break down food particles/ cell wastes/ worn-out cell parts

Cell Wall

rigid structure surrounding the cell membrane
plants only

Chloroplasts

trap sun energy and changes it into chemical energy
plants only

Photosynthesis

the chemical reaction that takes place when CO2 and water react to the presence of sunlight and creat glucose (food) and O2

Bacteria

prokaryotic cells

Viruses

tiny, non-living particles
reproduce only when in a host cell

Equilibrium

equal number of particles on both sides of the membrane

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