bcp final

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38 terms · vocabulary.

evolution

a change in the genetic makeup of population over time

acquired characteristic

trait acquired during organisms lifetime

inherited characteristic

characteristic that was passed down from parent

natural selection

unequal reproductive success of organism with or without favorable traits

artificial selection

when humans act as the selective pressure

adaption

traits which helps an organism survive/reproduce

genetic drift

The gradual changes in gene frequencies in a population due to random events

gene flow

new alleles flow in or out of a population

bottleneck effect

sudden change in environment that can reduce size of population

founder effect

few individuals are isolated from a bigger population

speciation

when members of a population can no longer reproduce with the original species

vestigial structure

structures that have no use not, but did for ancestors

analogous structure

similar functions and different structures

homologous structure

similar structures with varied structures

paleontology

study of fossils

embryology

study of embryos

biogeography

study of where organism lived

molecular genetics

comparing DNA of similar organisms

morphology

study of forms and structures of organism

dominant

the trait that overpowers another trait (A)

recessive

the trait that resides under the dominant trait (gets covered-a)

DNA

deoxiriboneucleic acid- instructions for life

RNA

riboneucleic acid- type of nucleic acid (information)

mRNA

messenger RNA, takes message from DNA out to cell)

tRNA

most abundant RNA which combines with protein to form structure of ribosomes; transfer RNA carries amino acids

gene

discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of nucleotide sequencing DNA

allele

alternative versions of a gene that produces distinguished effects

genotype

the genetic makeup of set of alleles for an organism

homozygous

a set of the same alleles for an organism (AA, aa)

heterozygous

a set of alleles that are different (Aa)

transcription

synthesis of RNA template

translation

synthesis of protein using genetic information encoded on RNA

sex chromosome

23rd pair of chromosomes that determine gender and other sex related traits (XX, XY)

autosome

any chromosome other than XX, XY

codon

3 nucleotide sequence of DNA or RNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal

anti-codon

specialized base triplet at one end of tRNA molecule that recognizes a particular complimentary codon or mRNA molecule

protein

3 dimensional biological polymer constructed from a set of 20 different monomers called amino acids

ribosome

cell organelle constructed in the nucleus, functions as the fire of protein synthesis in cytoplasm

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