study of language acquisition and use in relation to the psycological factors controlling its use and recognition
study of language acquisition within social contexts
study of brain mechanisms underlying language acquisition
movement back and forth between two languages within the same conversation
Approach uses target language in a communicative way for meaningful activities, emphasizes active modes of learning (ie. pair/ groupwork)
from the 1950's
Approach relies on repetition and drills
total physical response
Approach combines information and skills through the use of movement
content based instruction
Approach integrates language instruction with instruction in the content areas
Notional Functional Approach
Finocchiaro and Brumfit
This method stresses a means of organizing language into units based on situations in which they would be used
Language learned "directly" with no grammar explanations. New vocabulary is introduced by demonstration. First language is not used in class.
language is acquired and not learned. Students acquire it when they receive comprehensible input.
Natural Approach Steps
preproduction (silent period), early production, speech emergence, immediate fluency
said in a way a student can understand
Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach
CALLA- approach for upper elementary and beyond where students learn through an organized approach to the content areas. Uses silent feedback, pointing, and drawing
Steps to CALLA
grade appropriate content-academic language development- instruction in learning strategies
also known as production skills, this is more demanding because learner has to know the correct punctuation or spellings, endings, word meanings, structures, and rules of usage.
listening and reading where the learner doesn't make the language
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency
formal academic learning essential to succeed in school where context of academic tasks become more and more reduced. Usually takes five to seven years.
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills
BICS- language skills needed in social situations. Usually context embedded, not demanding cogitively demanding, nor specialized. Usually develops within six months to two years.
study of linguistic meaning of morphemes, words, and sentences
study of how context and situation affect meaning
belief learning occurs though environmental stimuli and a learner's response to those stimuli
using more words than necessary to express something to avoid saying it directly
communicative based instruction
instruction where language is acquired in a natural way instead of being learned more formally throught the explicit instruction of grammatical rules because language contains an infinite number of possible combinations. Similar to first-language acquisition.