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Karnatic Music

Southern Region, reference Tyagaraja a saint and musician. Unlike Tansen, Tygara refused government position. Kriti is a type of their music, vocals are important.

Hindustani Music

Northern Region, Improv.. Gharanas derive their legitimacy from Tansen. "art music".

Tansen

Hindustani founder. court musician who needed to illustrate his professionalism in order to escape charges of emotive and sensual musical

Tyagaraja

A saint and Musician. for Karnatic musicians, not associated with any court, not bound by anything other than his bhakti or devotion to Rama. As such he didn't need to protect his musical creations but rather shared them freely.

Gharana

A school of professional musicians who originally traced their heritage to a family tradition

Raga

A scale with musical characters such as pitch, ascending, descending

Svara

pitches

Vakra

crooked ragas, starting in 1 place and moving

Gamaka

Ornamenttion that notes may carry

Sargam

a organization system helping people to learn rags

Svarkalapana

Improvised singing in carnatic

Eduppu. Mukhra

The opening phrase of a Kriti

Tihai

A pre composed phrase said 3 times to add emphasis

Laya

tempo

Drut

Fast Tempo

Vilambit

Slow Tempo

Tala

Meter

Jati

metrical cycles with beats

Bol

Hindustani rythmic syllable

Solkattu/ Konnakol

rhythmic system to help people remember, combining simple combos

Bhajan

A Carnatic devotional Song

Kriti

The major Carnatic music (South). In 3 parts pallavi, anupallavi, caranam.

Alapanam

An improv performed before the Kriti, demonstrates abilities

Pallavi

Opening of the ragam, chorus

Anupallavi

the extension of the chorus, exploring other octives...

Caranam

is an off-shoot of the anupallavi and is often very virtuosic in terms of the improvisatory gestures that get incorporated into its performance.

alap

Alap: Raga improvisation in free rythm

gat

a precomposed piece in a raga

dhrupad and khyal

vocal performance

ghazel

A form of poetry from Muslim culture from North India

Jor

Section of Hindustani instrumental performance that follows alap and introduces pulse

jhala

The concluding section of instrumental improv following Jor in Hindustani music with lively and fast movements

volkstumlich

"Folk like" music of central Europe in which traditional folk and modern popular music are often mixed

melismatic

- Performing a single syllable of text by singing multiple notes or pithes is called Melisma. Syllbic singing by contract matches one syllable to a single note or pitch.

klezmer music

- Jewish instrumental musicians, active in social events and rites of passage before holocaust and revived in 20th century America.

saami

Circumpolar peoples, living in northern Norway, Sweden etc. Whose musical pracrices in Europe mix indigenous and modern sounds.

roma

Transnational communites of people reffered to as Gypsies. Active in Europe history and across continent.

parlando rubato

Identified and characterized by a speech like style stressing the worlds with rhythmic structure. Associated with "old style" Hungarian folk song.

tempo guisto

A dance like style that stresses strick meter adherence. Associated with New Style Hungarian folk song.

old style/ new style hungarian folk music

New Style Hungarian Folk- More flexability in the new folk, and any Hungarian song fits into "New". Melodies are repeated, 4 live verses, ruthem is dance like, non Hungarian elements incorporated, influence of popular song is used

Old-Style- a 5 note pentatonic scale, melodies start high and end low, rhythm is speech like, on popular song.

volkslied

"Folk song" the song of traditional europea societies included under a single umbrella term from the 18th century

tamburitza

String ensemble from Southeaster Europe with high and low voices

saz

No recording. Lutelike instrument from Germany.

gusle

a lap fiddle of a Serbian ethnic singer

becar

Instrumentalist from southeastern Europe

ladino

Pre Italian latinate dialects of southern alps Romance vernacular of Sephardic jews.

eurovision

A huge song contect established in 1950s. By European Brodcasting Union. Pitting national entries against each other in an annual spectacle judged by telephone voting from entering nations... HUGE

Bira

A shona religious ceremony involving spirit possession. Uses 2 Mbiras and a Hosho (Shaker)

Shona

Zimbabwe people, a type of poetry that was used to speak against violence in ZImbabwe.. Chimeranga means struggle.

Mbira

An African Thumb Piano

Kushara

Part of the call and response
The lead piece played by a Shona mbira player

Kutsinara

Part of call and response
The answer piece played by a shone Mbira player

3 Principles of African Music

Interlocking- fitting ones pitches and beats into the spaces of other parts also called Hocket
Call and Response- the alternation or interlocking of leader and chorus of musical parts
Ostinato- A repeated or cyclical melody or pattern

Mbuti Pygmies

from congo offer a particular style on several african themes and use Hocket.

Musical Bow

Played in performer's mouth. Manipulate tension on the string to create pitches and melody. Mouth is used to change how much air goes in.

Hocket

technical term for requiring more than1 person to perform the melody (INTERLOCKING)

Jali

the term for hereditary professional musician in Mande society who serves as an oral historian

Kora

Instrument used by Jali, its a harp basically

Mande

Traditional Mali music

Ewe

..Dance Drumming

Dundun

Drum with attached with woven strings or cords, creating a suspension head. Incorporated into popular music

Highlife/ Palmwine (Ghana)

Palmwine is the name of the taverns where music was played, an ensemble consisted of a guitar, bass and percussion (whatever they could get their hands on)

Juju (Nigeria) New and Old

Nigerian Music with 2 parts : Early and New

Early: grew out of Palmwine with Banjo, tambourine and rattle. No brass sound

New: Since 1950s, expanded groups, and using Brass and electric guitar and accordion...

Chimurenga (Zimbabwe)

Zimbabwe Music born from struggles uses a Mbira and very political

Peking Opera

musical attraction in Beijing, main type of chinese pop music

Qin/Guquin

- the most respected chinese instrument. A 7 string zither
Famous song Lu Shui (Flowing Water), associated with scholars and poets

Wenzipu

prose tablature (what people read off as they play the Guquin)

Jianzipu

...

Portamento

Bending of pitches for example on the Guquin...

Silk and bamboo ensemble

...

Pipa

..a 4 stringed flute with a bent neck imported to Kucha

Erhu

Chinas how and string instrument

Wen

- a short composition of Pastoral/ Lyric (can be about nature)

Sheng

Also a short composition Martial (modeled on famous stories lite battles etc)

Yanquin

dulcimer struck with a pair of bamboo sticks)

Hoomi

Relaxed Throat Singing

Sygyt

To whistle also type of throat singing

Kargara

to wheeze, drone is low in throat singing

Borbangnadyr

pulsating rhythm like galloping horses

Shoor

...End-blown Tuvan flute made from reed or wood

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