Antiinfectives Chapter 25 Study Guide

46 terms by dbyers73 

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antibiotic

chemical agents produced by organisms used to treat infections

antimicrobial

chemical agents produced by scientists to prevent growth or to kill microorganisms

bacteria

unicellular organisms

bactericidal

agent that kills bacteria

bacteriostatic

Drugs that do not kill bacteria, but instead slow their growth.

ESBLs

extended spectrum βlactamases - resistance to 3rd gencephalosporins and monobactam but do not affect 2nd gen or carbapenems

gram-negative bacteria

bacteria that are UNABLE to keep crystal violet stain when prepared according to gram-stain procedures

gram-positive bacteria

bacteria that are ABLE to keep crystal violet stain when prepared according to gram-stain procedures

antibiotic spectrum

a variety of microbes that a particular antibiotic can treat

inhibit

to stop or hold back in order to prevent a reaction from taking place

morphology

appearance of an organism, including it's shape, size, structure, and gram-staining characteristics

MRSA

methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus

normal flora

microorganisms that live on or within the body without causing disease, but rather may aid the host organism

nosocomial infection

hospital acquired infection

parasites

organisms that require a host for nourishment and reproduction

pneumonia

inflammation of the lung caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or chemical irritants

PRSP

penicillin-resistant streptococcus pneumoniae

synthesis

the formation of chemical components in the body that comprise cell contents or containers

symbiotic

a close working relationship between two species

viruses

organisms that cannot replicate without the necessary components from a host

VRE

vancomycin-resistant enterococcus

cold chain

a set of safe handling practices that ensure vaccines and immunologicals requiring refrigeration are maintained at a required temperature

conjugate vaccine

links antigens or toxoids to polysaccharide or sugar molecules that certain bacteria use as a protective device to disguise themselves

live, attenuated vaccine

is a living, but weakened version of the disease

immunosuppressants

drugs that inhibit cell proliferation

immunization

is a deliberate, artificial exposure to disease to produce acquired immunity

toxoid vaccine

a vaccine that stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies to a specific toxin that causes illness

vaccine

a substance that prevents disease by taking advantage of your body's ability to make antibodies and release "killer" cells to a disease

Cephalosporin Agents 1st Generation

Cefazolin (Ancef), Cephradine (Velosef), Cephalexin (Keflex), Cefadroxil (Duricef)

Cephalosporin Agents 2nd Generation

Cefuroxime (Ceftin), Cefotetan (Cefotan), Cefprozil (Cefzil), Cefaclor (Ceclor)

Cephalosporin Agents 3rd Generation

Cefoperazone (Cefobid), Cefixime (Suprax), Cefpodoxime (Vantin)

Cephalosporin Agents 4th Generation

Cefepime (Maxipime)

Aminoglycosides

amikacin (Amikin), gentamicin (Garamicin), tobramycin (Nebcin, Tobi)

Antiprotozoan Agents

Chloroquine (Aralen), Primaquine, Metronidazole (Flagyl),
Pyrimethamine (Daraprim), praziquantel (Biltricide), mefloquine (Lariam), mebendazole (vermox), iodoquinol (Yodoxin)

Antituberculin Agents

isoniazid (INH), rifampin (Rifadin), cycloserone (Seromycin)

Macrolides

Erythromycin (Erythrocin), Clarithromycin (Biaxin),
Azithromycin (Zithromax).

CA-MRSA

community-associated MRSA infection

GNRB

Gram-Negative Resistant Bacilli (bacteria)

HA-MRSA

Hospital-associated MRSA infection

MDR-GNB

Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli (bacteria)

MDRO

Multidrug-resistant organism

MDRSP

multidrug-resistant streptococcus pneumoniae

MSSA

Methicillin Susceptible Staph Aureus

PRSP

penicillin-resistant streptococcus pneumoniae

VISA

Vancomycin-intermediate staphylococcus aureus

VRSA

Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

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