no state shall deny any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of laws
Civil Rights Act
Title VI 1964
No person in the United States shall on the ground of race, color, or national origin be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program receiving Federal financial assistance.
Equal Educational Opportunities Act
No state shall deny equal education opportunity to an individual on account of his or her race, color, sex, or national origin.... through failure of an educational agency to take appropriate action to overcome language barriers that impede equal participation by its students in instructional programs
Office of Civil Rights
apart of the US Dept. of Education, it is the primary agency that monitors school districts' compliance for ELLs. Current policy is district can use any method proven successful
Plyer v. Doe
school districts must admitt students regardless of immigration status. Only health procedures/ immunization required. Schools do not enforce immigration law.
Non-English Language Background
school districts must effectively identify and assess NELB students by administering a home language survey and tests to determine whether they are limited English proficient (LEP).
Lau v. Nichols
Ruled student who do not understand English are effectively foreclosed from meaningful education.
Castandeda v. Pickard
Rules schools must provide a program based on sound educational theory.
Based on Civil Rights Act of 1964
Ruled a district may not inapproriate place students in special educational programs based on English language proficiency.
Y.S. v. School District of Philadelphia
Ruled districts must communicate with parents in a language they can understand, review the educational program of each ELL student individually, and develop a remedial plan to meet the needs of ELL students.