Indian soldiers who were a part of the East India Company army. This army was lead by British officers
A rumor spread among the sepoys that their rifles were greased with beef and pork fat. To use the cartridges, one had to bite off the end. Hindus (cow sacred) and Muslims (don't eat pork) were outraged. 85 out of 90 sepoys refused to use the cartridges, and were sent to jail. The sepoys marched to Delhi, where they met up with more Indian soldiers. They captured the city of Delhi. This rebellion spread throughout northern India. There was much fighting, and it took a year for the East India Company to regain control.
British rule in India during the reign of Queen Victoria. Britain took a direct command of India. This occurred because of the sepoy rebellion.
India National Congress
Hindu nationalist group in India, founded 1885.
Government of India Act of 1858
The Viceroy was in charge of every section of administration. He had to give consent to every law/regulation.
India Councils Act of 1892
Added more members ti both the Viceroy's and provincial gobernors' legislative council. These people were recommended by merchants, manufacturers and landowners,
1906. Muslims felt that the Congress Party was too Hindu-based, and even anti-Muslim. They feared they would be overwhelmed by the Muslim majority. Wanted to protect the rights of minorities.
India Councils Act of 1909
Permitted legislative councils to discuss the budget and introduce bills, but members were not allowed to embarrass the government in any way. Viceroy could disallow any proposal. Recognized the concept of separate electorates for Muslims, who were allowed to elect members of their own religious faith into legislative seats reserved for them.
Mohammed Ali Jinnah
Elected to the new Imperial Legislative Council. Had a London law degree and wanted cooperation between Hindus and Muslims. Also a member of Congress Party. Arranged annual conferences of both parties in Lucknow.
At this conference, the two parties agreed to have separate electorates for Muslims and, in provinces where Muslim's were the minority, a guaranteed number of seats.
Jinnah's resignation from Congress Party
Gave up on cooperation between the two parties in the 20s, because he believed in constitutional reforms, and Gandhi wanted to appeal to the masses. Jinnah realized that a Hindu mass movement would not necessarily need Muslim support. Resigned from Congress Party. Later, the Congress party broke the Lucknow Pact, by abandoning separate electorates.
Government of India Act of 1919
Increased the percentage of the adult male population who could vote. Land revenue or past/present service in the armed forces. 10% of adult male population. Anglo-Indians, Indian Christians, Sikhs and other groups were given separate electorates.
Government of India Act of 1935
Intended to create a federation of eleven British provinces and the their 500 Indian princely states. The central legislature would consist of a Council of State and House of Assembly. Seats were allocated for separate electorates. Viceroy kept supreme powers. Representatives were to be given wide responsibilities in running the dat-to-day government of their provinces.
Sir Stafford Cripps
A represented the British government who offered Indian leaders eventual independence. Immediately after the war, provinces and states would send representatives to create a body that would draft a constitution. This constitution would be accepted the the British government, as long as every state in India had the right to not agree. Constitution had to provide rights to minorities. Did not go through- India wanted a cabinet government, and not a weak continuation of the Viceroy's Executive Council.
India National Congress
Hume helped form it, It met once a year abut had no permanent organization. Members were well-to-do lawyers, journalists, or civil servants who spoke English. Wanted to increase access to Indian Civil Service. Moderates who desired gradual constitutional reforms within the British Empire.
An educated reformer and founder of the the newspaper Kesari. He organized a boycott of British goods and taxes. A more radical member of the Congress.
People could be arrested and jailed without charges or a trial. This led to protests.
Peaceful demonstration against the Rowlatt Bills at. He ordered his troops to fire into a mass meeting held within a walled garden in the city of Amritsar. 379 people were killed and 1,200 wounded.
Acts of civil disobedience. How Gandhi chose to rebel against Britain. No violence.
Gandhi's Salt March
All indians were prohibited from making salt, and had to buy it from the British. Gandhi and his followers marched 240 miles to the sea in protest. When they reached the ocean, they made salt. Very symbolic.
March to Dharasana Salt Works
2,500 Gandhi supporters marched to Dharasana. Government troops used their lathis to beat the marchers. The men did not resist.
Son of Motilal. He helped fight for Indian independence. He also became India's first Prime Minister.
Cripps Mission Pakistan
In 1942, Jinnah took Cripps Mission, that states any state could reject the constitution, to mean that Pakistan was allowed.