What is the time period known as in Europe from about 500-1300 AD?
What is the more common name of the Merovingians?
Who was their 1st ruler to accept Christianity after he took power in 481 AD?
What important accomplishment was Charles Martel known for when he took power in 714?
He repelled the Muslim invasion from Spain into France in 732 AD at the Battle of Tours
What were Charlemagne's 3 major accomplishments as ruler?
-He doubled the size of his kingdom
(parts of present day France, Germany, and Italy)
-he is crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III in 800 AD
How did Charlemagne use counts and missi dominici to help rule his government?
-counts stopped feuds, protected the weak, and provided men for his army
-missi dominici were the kings inspectors who went around his kingdom to check on the performance of the courts and other government workers
What happened to Charlemagne's lands following his death and that of his son Louis the Pious?
His kingdom was broken into 3 parts by Louis' sons
What 4 groups of people invaded Europe from 800 to 1000 AD?
the Muslims, the Slavs, the Magyars and the Vikings
What were 3 results of their invasions?
-communities because isolated
-power of the monarchies was weakened
What was the political system call that grew out of the viking raids on Europe?
What are the 3 main characteristics of it?
-stressed alliances (between king and vassals)
-gave land (a fief) to nobles (vassals) in exchange to loyalty and military aid
Under this system of government , what 3 powers were nobles granted over their lands?
minted their own coins
What did they have to promise in return to the king?
loyalty and military service
What were the mounted warriors called in the middle ages?
What is meant by the code of chivalry that they were supposed to follow?
code of behavior for how a knight should behave
if feudalism was the political system that was created in the Middle Ages, what was the economic system called that grew out of it?
manorialism (the manor system)
Why were peasants willing to work for a noble/lord in this type of system?
they wanted stability and security
How are peasants and serfs different?
Peasants had to pay rents for living on a lord's manor
serfs worked the lands and could not leave it without the lord's permission
What were 2 ways that farm production was increased during this time period?
used a heavy wooden plow to dig deeper into the solid
used a 3-field crop rotation to increase sil fertility
Who was the chief spiritual, political, and religious leader of western Europe during the Middle Ages?
What was the main language of the Catholic church?
Who made up each of the secular and religious clergy AND what was the difference between them?
Secular Clergy- pope, bishops, and priests (lived in world)
Religious Clergy- monks and nuns (lived in seclusion)
What is the primary goal of a monastery or convent?
to create a secluded religious community set up for monks or nuns to live
Who was in charge of a monastery or convent?
abbot (monastery) and abbess (convent)
What were 8 activities that monasteries and convent did that had a lasting impact of medieval society
-copied ancient religious & classical writings
-created illuminated manuscripts, tapestries and banners
-set up schools for young people
-hospitals for the sick
-food for the needy
-guest houses for travelers
-taught skills to peasants (carpentry & weaving)
-became missionaries to spread Christianity to other parts of Europe
What was the conflict that many high Catholic Church officials had in carrying out their duties
many high church officials were also nobles in the king's court
Who usually controlled the local churches in many countries?
kings and noblesf
How did they change the way the pope was elected in 1059 AD to try to get away from this influence?
that the cardinals (high church officials) would elect the pope rather than secular leaders like lords and kings
What were the courts that the Catholic Church started in 1232 AD to try to stop people who did not strictly follow their teachings
the courts of inquisition
What is the term for not following the church's strict teachings?
What were the punishments if you were found guilty of not following the Church's basic beliefs?
-excommunication (kicked out of church)
-loss of property
How were friars different than monks?
wandering preachers (priests0 who depended on food and shelter from others to survive
Who were the 2 best known groups of friars during this time period
Franciscans and Dominicans
Who was the leader of England that finally defeats the Danish Vikings in 886 AD to set up and independent country?
Alfred the Great
After the death of the Anglo Saxon kings what 2 leaders fight for control of England in 1066 AD?
William (Duke of Normandy)
Harold Godwinson (chosen by English nobles as king)
William the Conqueror
In what 5 ways does he strengthen his power over the country?
-takes Anglo Saxon lands for himself
-gives some lands to his vassals (lords/ Nobles)
-vassals swear direct loyalty to him
-sets up councils to advise him on taxes
-names local sheriffs to collect taxes
Why did English nobles force King John to sign the Magna Carta?
-had lost English land in France
-increased taxes and punished enemies without trials
What 2 rights did this documents guarantee that made it so important?
-king could not collect taxes without consent of the Great Council (of Lords)
-assured people the right to trial by jury
By what terms dit eh English reperesentative government become known as over time?
Great Council >>> Parliament (which splits between House of Lords and House of Commons)
Around 1200 AD, what new social class begins to develop in England, and elsewhere in Europe?
middle class (burgesses): business, trade, merchants
List in order the typical social class structure of Medieveal society
-middle class (burgesses)
Who established a new monarchy in France in 987 AD?
Where was his capital city?
Unlike the Franks before him, how was he able to establish a smooth transfer of power?
-only his eldest son inherited the throne (and lands and power)
What were 6 ways that the kings that followed him weakened the power of feudal rulers in France?
-granted self government to towns
-formed permanent armies
-appointed local officials loyal to the king
-created royal courts
-banned private warfare
What body did Philip IV establish to try to raise taxes for the crown?
Why were the leaders of Germany weak in comparison to those of England and France?
because of disputes with the pope and German nobles
WHy di teh pope crown King Otto I Holy Roman Emperor?
because he helped the pope against Roman nobles who had opposed him
What conflict erupted between the Holy Roman Emperor and the pp[es?
-Holy roman emperors claimed the right to appoint and depose popes
-popes claimed right to anoint and depose kings
What agreement was made between the 2 sides in 1122 AD and hos did it resolve his conflict?
The concordat of Worms
Emperor could appoint bishops and grant them land but the pope could reject unworthy candidates