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Chemistry

is the study of the transformations that matter is able to undergo, together with the energy changes associated with these changes.

Matter

anything that takes up space and has mass

Gas, Liquid, & Solid

Matter exist in three states

Solid

A state of matter that has a definite shape and a definite volume

Liquid

matter that has a definite volume but no definite shape

Gas

matter that does not have a definite shape or volume

Mixtures

physical changes in that it is made up of two or more substances that are combined physically, homogeneous and heterogeneous

Homogeneous

mixture of two or more substances, in which you can not see distinguishable parts in the mixture.

Heterogeneous

mixture of two or more substances, in which you can see distinct parts in the mixture.

Solutions

another name for homogeneous mixtures

Pure Substance

Matter that has the same chemical composition throughout and cannot be separated into its parts by physical means.

Distillation

a process used to separate dissolved solids from a liquid, which is boiled to produce a vapor that is then condensed into a liquid

Filtration

a process that separates materials based on the size of their particles

Chromatography

A technique that is used to separate the components of a mixture based on the tendency of each component to travel or be drawn across the surface of another material.

Intensive properties

do not depend on the amount of matter present

Extensive properties

depend on the amount of matter that is present

Precise

something that is highly reproducible.

Accurate

something that is close to the actual, correct value of the quantity being measured.

Random

a type of error: the measurement has an equal probability of being high or low

Systematic

a type of error: the measurement is consistently off in the same direction always too high or too low.

K=Celsius + 273.15

Celsius to Kalvin Equation

C=Kalvin - 273.15

Kalvin to Celsius Equation

(F-32)x (5/9)=C

Fahrenheit to Celsius Equation

C x (9/5) +32=F

Celsius to Fahrenheit Equation

Density=Mass/Volume

Density Equation... 217g of Silver and a volume of 19.2cm3

Specific Gravity

Density of a object... <1 = Floats ; >1 = Sinks

Energy

the capacity to do work or to produce heat

Kinetic

Energy due to motion

Potential or Kinetic

What two things are energy classified?

Potential

Energy seen in our daily lives as gravitational energy

Gravitational potential energy

mgh... g=9.8m/s2. m is the mass of the object in kg, and h is the height in meters.

Kinetic Energy

1/2mv2... where m is the mass of the object in kg, and v is its velocity in m/s

5.6 kg x 9.8 m/sec2 x 6.1m =335J

Bowling Ball weighs 5.6kg, falling 6.1m out a window. what is its energy in J?

Heat

Transfer of energy between two objects due to a temperature difference.

Endothermic

describes a process in which heat is absorbed from the environment

Exothermic

a description of a change in which a system releases energy to its surroundings

Specific Heat Capacity

the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of substance by one degree celcius

calorie

amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius

q=mcΔT

J = (g)(c)(ΔT)..... g= mass; c= specific heat capacity (J/g-°C); ΔT= the change in temperature. what the water change was.

Physical Change

a change of matter from one form to another without a change in chemical properties

Chemical Change

a change that occurs when one or more substances change into entirely new substances with different properties

Vaporization

liquid to gas

Condensation

gas to liquid

Melting

Solid to Liquid

Freezing

liquid to solid

Sublimation

solid to gas

Deposition

gas to solid

Gas

Total Disorder; Has much empty space, particles have complete freedom of motion, particles are far apart.

Liquid

Disorder: partilces or clusters of particles are free to move relative to the other particles, particles are close together.

Solid

Ordered arrangement; particles are essentially in fixed positions; particles are close together.

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