Ch 9 Pattern of Inheritance

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Cambell Biology Chapter 9 Pattern on Inheritance

character

An inherited feature that varies from individual to individual.

Trait

one particular variation of a character

Character

an inherited feature that varies from individual to individual

Trait

One particular variation of a character

Monohybrid Cross

a genetic cross involving parents that differ in a single character

Alleles

alternate versions of most human genes

Dominant Allele

If an organism has two non-idential versions of a gene, the one that is express in the organism

Recessive Allele

If an organism has two non-idential versions of a gene, the one that isnot express in the organism

Phenotype

The physical trait of an organism

Genotype

the genetic makeup of an organism

Mendel's view of the mechanism of heredity was radically different from the prevailing view of the time because he saw heredity working through

unchanging (immutable), heritable factors that were contributed by each parent and never mixed

An insect that has the genotype EeGGcc will have the same phenotype as an insect with the genotype _____.

EEGgcc

In an individual of genotype Aa, where are the A and a alleles physically located?

One allele is on one chromosome, and the other is in the same position (locus) on the homologous chromosome.

Human genetic disorders _____.

most often recessive

There are over 100 alleles known for the gene associated with cystic fibrosis. With current technology, it is possible to determine exactly which allele or alleles is/are carried by a person. What is the maximum number of different alleles that any person can carry?

2

Which of the following line or lines of evidence support(s) the chromosome theory of inheritance?

Genes segregate; chromosomes come in pairs.

pangenesis

particles from all the parts of the body are passed to eggs or sperm, and are inherited by offspring at fertilization.

blending hypothesis

1800's, stating that the traits from both parents were mixed, or blended in the offspring, much like paint.

Gregor Mendel

1866, endures as the foundation of the modern science of genetics.

hybrid

the offspring of two different true-breeding parents.

P generation

or parental generation.

F-1 generation

the offspring of the P genteration

homozygous

If the alleles for a trait are both the same

heterozygous

If the alleles for a trait are different,

Mendel's Law of Segregation

Mendel also determined that a sperm or egg carries only one allele for each inherited trait. This is because pairs of alleles separate, or segregate, from each other during the production of gametes in meiosis.
At fertilization, sperm and egg unite, so that both alleles will be present in the offspring.

dihybrid cross

parents differ in two traits.

Mendel's Principle of Independent Assortment

From his evaluation of the offspring, Mendel deduced that each pair of alleles separates, or assorts, independently of all other alleles during the formation of gametes. That is, the distribution of alleles for one trait does not affect the distribution of alleles for other traits.

Autosomal Recessive

Disorder caused by the inheritance of two defective recessive alleles, one from each parent, located on one of the autosomes.
Pedigree:High Frequency both sex
AA or Aa

Autosomal Dominant

Disorder caused by the inheritance ofa single defective dominant allele located on one of the autosomes,
Pedigree: High both sex

X-linked Recessive

Disorder caused by the inheritance of a defective recessive allele located on the X chromosome.
Pedigree: More males
XaXa or XaY

Incomplete Dominance

Incomplete dominance results in an phenotype that is intermediate between the two parents; it looks like the "blending theory" of inheritance.

Type A blood

IAIA and IAi

Type B blood

IBIB and IBi

Type AB blood

IAIB

Type O blood

ii

Multiple Alleles and Co-dominance

Many genes have more than two alleles in the population.
Each allele has an effect; no allele is dominant over another allele.

Pleiotropy

gene's capacity to influence more than one characteristic of gene codes for a particularly critical protein.
Examples include:
Sickle cell disease, which is due to a recessive allele.

Polygenic Inheritance

combined effect of two or more genes on a single phenotypic characteristic. By itself, each gene has a small effect. However, when added together, these effects result in a wide range of phenotypes.
This range can be graphed to provide a "bell curve," or "normal distribution."

Chromosome Theory of Inheritance

It states that genes occupy specific locations (loci) on chromosomes, and that chromosomes (not individual genes) undergo segregation and independent assortment during meiosis.

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