Bridgelike structures that carry water.
"""The Hun"" - fierce leader who led the Huns in an attack on Gaul"
"given the tile meaning ""the revered one"" - known as the first Roman Emperor even though he did not use the title ""Emperor"" - his reign began the Pax Romana or period of Roman peace"
Nomadic Arab herders of sheep and camels.
General of Justinean's Army who led the troops that crushed the Nika Revolt.
Heads of the Catholic Church in major cities.
Roman officials who registere citizens according to their wealth.
checks and balances
System of government that prevents any one part of the government from becoming too powerful.
Short-lived failed crusade in 1212 by young people from Europe who marched on the Holy Land to regain it for Christianity.
Code of conduct that dictated knights' behavior toward others.
Daughter of the ruling Ptolemy family who was given the throne of Egypt by Caesar as a Roman ally
Emperor of Rome remembered for supporting Christianity throughout the empire and for creating a new capital city in the East called Constantinople.
Chief exectuvies elected to run the government in ancient Rome.
Expeditions by Christians to regain the Holy Land from the Muslims.
Cyril and Methodius
"Brothers who were Christian missionaries - they tried to teach the Bible to Slavs in central and eastern Europe. Since they had no written language, the brothers created an alphabet for them known as Cyrillic."
"Title taken by Ivan he Terrible; Russian for ""cesar."""
Roman Emperior who was a general in the Roman Army. He felt that the Empire was too hard to manage and appointed a co-emperor and two assistants (caesars). Civil war eventually broke out.
Money or goods a wife brings to a marriage.
Class of business people and landowners in ancient Rome who had wealth and power.
Official edict that bars a person from church membership.
"Political system of local government based on the granting of land in return for loyalty, military assistance, and other services."
Grant of land given to a vassal from a lord.
Five Good Emperors
Five ruleres who led Rome for about 100 years during the Pax Romana.
Five Pillars of Islamic Faith
"1. The profession of Faith; 2. The five daily prayers; 3. Paying zakat; 4. Fasting during the holy month of Ramadan; 5. Making a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once, if possible."
"One of the first humanists who became famous as a scholar and teacher. He also wrote poetry. His sonnets to Laura, an imaginary ideal woman, are considered some of the greatest love poems in literature."
"A Roman general who was elected consul in 107 BC and brought major changes to the Roman political scene. He reward his voluntter army with money, land, and loot."
Roman physician who wrote volumes of medical knowledge - medical authority of his time.
"Trained fighters, usually slaves, who fought in arenas as entertainment."
Roman general who joined Caesear and Licinius Crassus forming a political alliance known as the Triumvirate
"One of a group of Germanic tribes who flooded into the Roman Empire and later revolted, weakening the empire."
Flammable liquid used as a weapon by the Byzantine navy.
"Great, decorative Byzantine church in Constantinople."
"One of the greatest generals of all time who assembled a huge Carthaginian army that included foot soldiers, horse soldiers, and elephants. They army marched across the Alps into Italy where many died."
Opinion that conflicts with official church beliefs.
"Migration of Muhammad and his followers in AD 622, marking the first year in the Muslim calendar."
"Roman poet who wrote of human emotions in odes, satires, and epistles (letters)"
"People who specialize in studying the humanities, which includes grammar, history, poetry, and rhetoric."
Nomadic people from Asia who attacked the Roman Empire.
"Holy picture of Jesus, the Virgin Mary, or a saint."
Debate between opponents and defenders of icons in the Byzantine Church; one of the issues that led to the split of the Christian Church in 1054.
People who opposed the use of icons in worship.
Rise in prices caused by a decrase in the value of the medium of exchange.
"Her court had one of the most brilliant of the Italian Renaissance. Educated in language and poetry, Isabella was a woman of keen intellegence and power. She supported scholars and writers."
Religion based on Muhammad's teachings and ideas that began spreading throughout Arab tribes in the AD 600's.
Known as Ivan the Great - ruled as Great Prince who united many principalities and became the first ruler of Russia as an absolute monarchy
Ivan the Terrible
"Son of Ivan the Great who became ruler at age 3 whose actions were considered cruel and puzzling, but he laid the foundation for a new Russian state."
Jewish teacher who was the leader of the new Christian religion.
Teaching of Islam to defend the faith.
Relatives of Caesar who ruled for 54 years of the Pax Romana following the death of Augustus.
Powerful public speaker and general who wanted to become emperior. He was murdered by friends because of his desire for power.
Byzantine Emperor who led the Byzantines in the revival of glory and power. The Justinian is known as the one of the greatest periods in Byzantine history. He created the Justinian Code which organized law.
Collection of laws that formed the basis for Byzantine law under Emperor Justinian.
Leonardo da Vinci
"Renaissance artists, architect, engineer, painter, sculpter, and scientists. Created The Last Supper and Mona Lisa paintings."
Lucius Cornelius Sulla
Roman consul who wanted to take military command that promised to gain him great fame and fortune. His actions led to civil war where he triumphed.
Economic system during the Middle Ages that revolved around self-sufficient farming estates where lords and peasants shared the land.
Roman general who drove out the conspiritors after Caesar's murder and took control of Rome.
Persons put to death for their beliefs.
Master of Renaissance art - painter who painted the ceiling of the Sistene Chapel in the Vatican and help design St. Peter's Basilica in Rome.
"Picture or design made from small pieces of enamal, glass, or stone."
Muslim pictures of worship.
Prophet who reported that an angel revealed verses to teach as a prophet. He is the founder of Islam.
Followers of the religion of Islam.
A Florentine diplomat and historian who wrote The Prince.
A rising Asian power who captured Constantinople and put and end to the Byzantine empire
"Roman poet who wrote loves lyrics and the Metamorphoses, a collection of myths written in verse"
Bishops of the administrative ceners for the church in the last years of the Roman Empire.
Powerful landowners who controlled Roman government and society.
Period of Roman peace from the beginning of Augustus' rein until the death of Marcus Aurelius.
Art technique that involves making distant objects smaller than those in the foreground and arranging them to create the illusion of depth on a flat canvas.
Farmers and workers who made up most of the Roman population.
"A Greek who wrote Parallel Lives, a collection of Green and Roman biographies and showed similarites between Greeks and Romans"
Turkish people who after 1055 controlled the area south of Kiev in Russia.
"Title assumed by the patriarch of Rome and head of the Catholic Church; from the Latin word meaning ""father."""
Elected Roman officials who helped the consuls.
System of inheritance from father to eldest son for ownership or possession of land.
Roman scientist whose astronomy theories were accepted for almost 1500 years
Three costly conflicts between Romans and Carthaginians over control of the Mediterranean and overseas expansion.
Holy book of Islam.
Religious scholars of Judaism.
Painter who was hired by the pope to beautify the Vatican - painted frescos and is know for painting the Virgin Mary.
"Movement following the Middle Ages that centered on revival of interest in the classical learning of Greece and Rome; French word meaning ""rebirth."""
Form of government in which voters elemetn officials to run the state.
Muslim leader who gained control of Jerusalum.
"Roman general at the Battle of Zama, near Carthage, who defeated Hannibal and his army."
"Muslim people from central Asia who gained control of Palestin, or the Holy Land to Christians, during the late 1000's."
Peasants who were bound to the land where they worked for a lord.
Slave who a brutal revolt that was crushed by the Roman army.
"Greatest Roman historian who wrote Annals, a history of Rome under the Julio-Claudian emperors and expressed criticism of the government set up by Augustus"
"Two brothers, Tiberus and Gaius Gracchus, who saw the need for reform in the Roman Republic."
Empress who influenced her husband Justinian to improve the status of women in society. She worked to change many laws so as to protect women. She donated money to churches and orphanages.
Moscow; Russian Orthodox interpretation of the city's leading role in bringing spiritual light to the world.
Officials elected by Rome's popular assemblies.
Political alliance of three rulers.
Pope who called for the Crusades after the Byzantine emperor appealed to him
One of a group of Germanic tribes who invaded and destroyed territory in the Roman Empire.
Person granded land from a lord in return for services.
"Refuse to approve, as in a bill or law."
"Greatest of the Roman poets who wrote Aeneid and tells of the story of Aeneas, a prince of Troy"
Russian leader who ruled from 1113 - 1125 AD who was merciless against his enemies. Kiev was often at war during his reign.