complex process in which cells make ATP by breaking down organic compounds
cell respiration in the presence of oxygen
1 glucose (aerobic respiration)
cell respiration in the absence of oxygen
1 glucose (anaerobic respiration)
types of organisms based on O2 consumption
strict aerobes, strict anaerobes, facultated anaerobes
die in the absence of oxygen (use aerobic respiration)
die in the presence of oxygen (use anaerobic respiration )
can survive in the absence of oxygen, but will utilize aerobic respiration in the presence of oxygen
what is the biproduct of anaerobic respiration?
what is another name for cell respiration?
three stages of aerobic respiration
Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, Electron Transport Chain
occurs in the cytoplasm. (only stage that doesn't include oxygen)
another name for Krebs Cycle
occurs inside the matrix of the mitochondria
Electron Transport Chain
occurs along the inner membrane of the mitochondria
equation for cell respiration
C6 H12 O6+ O2--------------> CO2+H2O
carries high energy electrons throughout the process.
low energy electron carrier
Energy output of glycolysis
products of Grooming Stage of Kreb's cycle
Energy output of the Krebs Cycle (Grooming Stage)
Energy output of the Krebs Cycle
Overall energy output of Krebs cycle
less efficient than aerobic. the creation of energy in the absence of oxygen
two steps of anaeriboc respiration
Which is the only step that doesn't require oxygen?
regenerates NADH to NAD+
2 types of fermentation
lactic acid fermentation
lactic acid fermentation
what we make, end product, produces lactic acid
who does lactic acid fermentation ?
bacteria and animals
ethanol is produced
who does alcoholic fermentation?
uses inorganic carbon (CO2) to create organic molecules
consumes organic carbon to create organic carbon compounds
use light energy to create organic compounds
obtains energy from chemical sources to create organic compounds
Types of organisms based on troph
Photoautotroph, photoheterotroph, chemoheterotroph, chemoautotroph
uses light energy and inorganic carbon (CO2) to create organic molecules
example of a photoautotroph
uses light energy and consumes organic carbon to create organic compounds
example of a photoheterotroph
obtains energy and organic carbon from other organisms
example of a chemoheterotroph
obtain energy from chemicals, but can utilize inorganic carbons
example of a chemoautotroph
deep ocean dwelling bacteria
utilizing light energy to create organic compounds
general equation for photosynthesis
CO2+H2O-----------> C6 H12 O6+O2
site of photosynthesis
components of chloroplasts
outer membrane, inner membrane, stroma, thylakoids
when a protein falls apart and loses function. this typically occurs at higher temperatures and different pH's
stack of thylakoids
Where does the Calvin Cycle occur?
in the stroma
where do the Light Reactions occur?
in the thylakoids
2 steps of photosynthesis
properties of light
light travels in waves, light is inversely proportional
distance between different waves
how many light waves pass a given point in one second
as one value goes up, the other goes down
all forms of energy created by the sun
includes all types of electromagnetic radiation
order of electromagnetic spectrum
gamma rays, x-rays, UV rays, visible light, infrared waves, microwaves, radiowaves
highest known level of electromagnetic (10 -4 nm)
what do gamma rays cause?
high frequency. (10 -3 to 1,000 nm)
how do you protect yourself from x-rays?
how do you protect yourself from UV rays?
800 to 10 6 nm
10 6- 10 9 nm (1 meter)
electron that is at a higher energy state than normal. any type of energy can do this.
lowest energy state of an electron
describe the electron/ground state process
electron absorbs light, goes to excited state. when energy is used up, electron goes back to ground state. light is given off again.
molecule that has a very loose hold on electrons
what is the purpose of the light reactions?
the purpose of the light reactions is to create energy to use in the next step of photosynthesis.
a protein with pigment molecules that are used to absorb light energy.
the three types of pigments
chlorophyll A, chlorophyll B, carotenoids
can absorb 400-480 nm in light. then it picks up again from 600 nm to 700 nm.
380-500 nm, then it picks back up again at 610-625 nm
work best at low intensities of light. 380-550 nm
what replenishes electrons in the light reactions?
products of the Light Reactions
NADPH & ATP are products located in the stroma.
what are PII and PI?
proteins that absorb light and use them for light reactions
what do PII and PI do when light hits them?
they become excited
-second stage of photosynthesis
-occurs within the stroma
-point of Calvin Cycle is carbon fixation
conversion of inorganic carbon into organic carbon molecules
products of Calvin Cycle
an enzyme with high affinity for carbon dioxide
three alternative pathways to carbon fixation
C3, C4, CAM
openings on leaves that allow the exchange of CO2 and O2
carried out by plants in temperate areas
at times of high heat, stomata will close limiting gas exchange. when stomata is closed, the organism has a buildup of O2 and low amounts of CO2.
what will C3 plants do in special cases?
incorporate O2 into the Calvin Cycle, making no food, and using up energy.
where does the Calvin Cycle occur in C3 plants?
in the mesophyll cells
enzyme with a much higher affinity for CO2 than Rubisco
where does the Calvin Cycle occur in C4 plants?
bundle sheet cells
crussalacean acid metabolism
which plants undergo CAM pathway?
Steps of CAM pathway
-during the day, stomata are closed, no gas exchange occurs. (light reactions--day, Calvin Cycle ---night)
-at night, stomata open, plants release O2 and take in CO2.
-CO2 that is taken in at night is incorporated into molecules that are then stored in the central vacuole.
-during the day, when stomata are closed, that carbon is released for use in the Calvin Cycle.
violet, green, yellow, orange, & red