Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Khyber Pass

Gap in the Hindu Kush mountains in which invaders entered India

Himalayas

The highest mountains in the world, which stretch along northern India, separating it from China and rest of Asia

Hindu Kush

Mountain range extending west of the Himalayas

Monsoons

Seasonal wind patterns that cause wet and dry seasons

Indus River

River in Pakistan that creates a fertile plain known as the Indus River Valley

Ganges River

Holiest of Rivers, lined with temples, very polluted

Indus Valley Civilization

Ancient worlds most populous civilization, located in Harrapa and Mohjeno-Daro modern day Pakistan, high level of urban planning, well organized govt, farming was basis of economy, well est. trade routes along indian ocean and Arabian Sea

Caste System

5: Brahmins- priests, Kyshatriyas- aristocrats, Vaisyas- free skilled workers, Sudras- slaves/unskilled labor, Untouchables/Dalit

Shiva

Destroyer God

Brahma

Creator God

Vishnu

Preserver God

Hinduism

Main religion of India, no founder or formal church, roots from Aryans, shapes and unifies much of India "way of life"

Vedas

Eternal truths revealed to wise men, forms of poems songs and prayers, Upanishads explained ideas

Reincarnation

Rebirth of the soul in various(temporary) forms

Karma

every deed, mental or physical, in this life affects a persons future life

Moksha

goal of life, liberation from Samsara, freeing of the soul from the body to unite with Brahman; one with Brahman

Dharma

fulfill life's duty

Kama

pleasure

Artha

wealth/power

Atman

allows you to be one with Brahman

Sikhism

the doctrines of a monotheistic religion founded in northern India in the 16th century by Guru Nanak and combining elements of Hinduism and Islam

Sepoy Rebellion

Indian troops in British army, gun cartridges greased with beef or pork fat, Results- Britain makes India a colony, Queen Victoria is empress of India, distrust between British and Indians

Effects of British Rule

Technology- improved roads, railroads and telegraphs, helped British keep control, Economic- British factories in India, less bought from Indians, Indians had to grow cash crops for expensive British products, Social- improved health care and sanitation, high caste Indians educated, taught about English language and culture(freedom and liberty)

East India Company

Lead by Robert Clive, British gain majority of trading rights, forced many Indian rulers to sign treaties

Amritsar Massacre

To protest the Rowlatt Act, Indians gathered in Amritsar, where British troops fired on the crowd killing several hundred. This sparked further protests

Mughal Empire

Founded by early Mongol leader Babur, early Mongols destroyed much of Hindu culture, Akbar(1556-1605) stressed tolerance; Accomplishments- Urdu, art, combo of Hindu and Muslim culture

Civil Disobedience

Disobeying unjust laws and accepting consequences

Imperialism India

East India Company controlled most of India, British were rulers of India, caused rise in India Nationalism

Mahatma Gandhi

political and spiritual leader during India's struggle with Great Britain for home rule; homespun movement, civil disobedience, salt march, satyagraha

Indian National Congress

A movement and political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participation in government. Its membership was middle class, and its demands were modest until World War I. Led after 1920 by Gandhi, appealing to the poor

Nehru

1st prime minister of India

Jinnah

Governor General of Pakistan

Socialism

an economic system in which the factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all

Indira Gandhi

elected prime minister after Nehru's death, assassinated by Sikh bodyguards

Modern Challenges India

overpopulation, discrimination, cultural diversity, Sikh violence,

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set