History Comprehension - Final

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What conditions in Italy contributed to the emergence of the Renaissance?

• Italy was always a center of culture and thriving arts
• The Renaissance principled on ancient Roman culture
• Italian cities survived through the Middle Ages leading to wealthy and more prosperous higher classes

Identify the concerns and attitudes emphasized during the Renaissance

The concerns and attitudes emphasized during the Renaissance included humanism, which led to an individual being defined by education. Education of great subjects, music, socialization, and poetry/literature was expected in every person. Men were smart, athletic, educated, and sociable while women were expected to be charming, beautiful, and graceful

How did Renaissance art reflect humanist concerns?

Renaissance art reflected humanist concerns by creating religious pieces, which would often times be put up against Roman or Greek backgrounds, well known figures of the day which would reflect the humanist individual achievement

How did Durer help bring the Renaissance to Northern Europe?

Dürer helped bring the Renaissance to northern Europe by traveling to Italy, and bringing the Renaissance customs along with him; through his artistic work and his essays he spread the principles of the Renaissance through his homeland, influencing people

What themes did Erasmus and More raise in their writings?

The themes that Erasmus and More rose through their writings included education, religion, and moral freedom

What are three effects of the printing revolution?

• The production of the portable book was facilitated
• Printed books were cheaper making them more available to people
• More books meant more readers, meaning people were educated beyond a farther level

Why did many Christians call for reform?

Many Christians called for reform because they were very unpleased with the way the Church was acting back then, it had become very corrupt and worldly, and its duty to the Christians was very poor

How did Martin Luther's ideas differ from those expressed by the Catholic Church?

Martin rejected authorities such as the Pope or Church councils, he believed that salvation would be achieved by faith on its own, and that the Bible was the only religious truth, he banned indulgences and torture as well

Why did Luther gain widespread support?

Some people believed that Luther's ideas were the answer to fix the Church's corruption, while others embraced his ideas to overthrow or take control of the Church

Identify 5 Ideas taught by John Calvin.

• Salvation was gained through own faith alone
• Bible was only source of religious truth
• Predestination
•The world was divided between saints and sinners
• The saint life had to be lived to maintain a true Christian

Why were Anabaptists considered Radical?

They were considered Radical because they sought of violence to solve their means such as abolishing property and speeding up Judgment day through violence, and they had very harsh strict morals

Describe the steps through which England became a Protestant country.

England first faced King Henry, which went against the Catholic Church because his marriage wasn't annulated, then soon after, the Anglican Church of England was set up, and then King Henry's son Edward made protestant reforms to the country, then Edward's sister came into power and restored Catholic Faith, and then finally, Queen Elizabeth declared England a Protestant nation

What were the goals of the Catholic Reformation?

The goals of the Catholic Reformation were to re-establish Catholic faith with strong discipline and obedience to the Church, it was to establish order and maintain no corruption within states, in the end a Catholic South and Protestant North was formed

Why did the persecution increase after the reformation?

The persecution increased because the results of having a Catholic South and Protestant North determined conflict while religious passion was very high, which would lead to both groups committing atrocities against each other

1. Why did some people oppose the heliocentric theory of the universe?

Because in Europe at the time, all scientific knowledge and many religious teachings were based on the arguments developed by classical thinkers.

2. How did the scientific method differ from earlier approaches?

Because it did not rely on authorities like Aristotle or Ptolemy or even the Bible. It depended instead upon observation and experimentation.

3. How did Newton try to explain the workings of the universe?

By publishing Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. He argued that nature follows uniform laws and that all motion in the universe can be measured and described mathematically.

How did early people adapt to different environments in the Americas?

The early people were able to adapt by settling into the different regions of the Americas, and taking advantage of the resources around them, for example the hot vegetated forests of the Amazon

What role did religion play in Olmec and Mayan Culture?

• In Olmec culture, the government and daily life revolved around religion, since cities were not built instead ceremonial centers dedicated to worship and religion
• In Mayan culture the religion boasted temples and palaces where art and events would be inscribed into the walls, while priests would perform certain rituals and people would be sacrificed

How did religion influence Mayan ideas and technology?

Religion influenced ideas and technology by means such as the calendar, where their religious ceremonies called for a calendar to keep track of time, their technology such as their pyramids and palaces was built to suit their religious needs, and a great deal of Mayan culture/ideas revolved around their religion

How did Aztecs build and control a powerful empire in Mexico?

The ancestors of the Aztecs, nomads, settled in present day Mexico and began to develop a civilization, they discovered new ways to support agriculture such as building chinampas, and soon with powerful alliances and vigorous conquests they were able to expand their empire

Describe one achievement of each of the following early peoples of Peru: Chavin, Mochica

• Chavin: built a huge temple complex, with stone carvings showing they believed in a ferocious looking God, their culture affected later civilizations
• Mochica: built an empire with great farming achievements, which included terracing, irrigation, and fertilization

Describe two ways in which the Incas united their empire.

The Incas created their own language (Quechua) and they created one of the greatest road systems in history

What were some elements for daily life of the Incas?

Religion played a big role in Incan life, where celebrations and festivals in every month would be included to worship Gods, while people also had their own duties such as either farming, metalworking, or making advances (such as medicine)

Why did European nations seek a sea route to Asia?

European nations seeked a trade route to Asia to gain spices, which would help them to gain a large profit.

Describe the routes taken by the explorers for Portugal during the 1400s and early 1500s.

The routes that were taken started by extending into Africa, seizing part of it, and then moving onto India, but the voyage to India came at a high price, resulting in the loss of half of their ships.

How did this affect Portugal's trade?

This affected Portugal's trade in a good way because in Afirca, it helped create a trade route in the Southern tip, while in India, spices were found allowing them to be sold at a profit of 3000%

Why did Columbus decide to sail westward?

Columbus wanted to sail westward to reach the Indies through the Atlantic Ocean, to set a record and a reputation.

What influences did his voyages have on other explorers?

The fact that Columbus was able to discover new land, encouraged and sparked other explorers to explore the new land and make new achievements.

How were Native Americans of the Caribbean region affected by their early encounters with Europeans?

Native Americans' gold was seized by the Europeans, they were forced to convert to Christianity, and a disease was brought with the Europeans wiping out Native American after Native American

What methods did Pizarro use to conquer the Incan Empire?

The methods that Pizarro used to conquer the Incan empire included using the help of allies to conquer, as well as using troops from Peru to overrun the empire.

How did the divisions within the Aztec and Incan empire help the Spanish?

The discontent between Aztecs and Incas led to the divisions within the two groups, because of this, the Spanish were able to get Indian allies to help them overtake the Aztecs and Incas.

What other reasons explain the rapid success of the Spanish conquistadors over Native Americans?

Superior military technology, disease brought by Europeans, and the disasters caused by the Spanish, led the Native Americans to think in a negative way.

Describe how Spain controlled its American empire.

The way that Spain controlled its American empire was it divided the lands into 5 provinces, and to maintain control they set up the Council of the Indies, viceroys, and an establishment of the Catholic Church

How did the mix of peoples in Spanish America result in a new social structure?

The mix and blend of people resulted in a new American culture and traditions.

Give three examples of cultural blending in Spain's American empire.

Three examples are peninsulares (highest of society - from Spain), mestizos (people from Native American and European descent), and creoles (American-born descendants of Spanish settlers)

How did other European nations challenge Spanish power in the Americas?

Some ways that others challenged Spanish power was illegally trading with Spanish colonists and pirates authorized by European nations hunted Spanish ships down for treasures

1. Describe attempts by Africans to stop the slave trade.

The attempts included Africans that attempted to seize control of the ships that transported them during the Middle Passage; the leader of Kongo who wanted his nation to be Christian, called on the Portuguese to help but instead they wanted to buy slaves, which Kongo rejected; and the almamy of Futa Foro prohibited slaves to be purchased or transported through his land, but then sailors were able to re-route and find another way to transport the slaves around

2. What was the impact of the slave trade on life in Africa?

The slave trade resulted in 11 million enslaved Africans being sent to the Americas, the rise and decline of African states, and some rulers depended off the slave trade, making profit from it and conquered other African states to gain slaves

What steps did the Asante ruler take to ensure his power?

The steps that the Asante ruler took to ensure his power were claiming divine right, a council of advisers, and ruling monopolies over gold mining and slave trade, and playing shrewdly against European rivals

How did Southern Africa become a battleground for rival groups?

a. Southern Africa became a battleground between Dutch settlers known as Boers and native tribes battling against these settlers such as the Bantu-speaking peoples and Zulus

How did the voyages of Columbus lead to global exchanges of goods and ideas?

Columbus's voyages to the Americas initiated an exchange of plants, animals, and food between Europe and the Americas, which the Spanish later on continued.

Explain how each of the following contributed to the economic changes in Europe: The Price Revolution, Capitalism, and mercantilism.

• The price revolution made economic changes because it involved inflation coming from scarcity of food from a larger population.
• Capitalism grew with expanded trade and overseas empires, helped with the investment procedure for gaining profits.
• Mercantilism helped with increasing the exportation rate, believing that an increase in gold and silver would measure a nations wealth, mercantilists urged rulers to adopt policies to increase national wealth and government revenues, which all leaded to a more organized and economic nation with a single monetary unit, backed up businesses and infrastructure.

How did the economic changes of the 1500s and 1600s affect the lives of ordinary people?

The economic changes depended on the social class, wealthy merchants investing overseas acquired wealth, while nobles' income would get hurt, while worker's wages didn't keep up with inflation creating discontent, and most Europeans were peasants, which the economic changes barely had an effect on.

What were the effects of the French wars of religion?

The effects of these wars included thousands of people being slaughtered, as well as many violent acts which led to the decline of order in France.

How did Henry IV rebuild French unity?

Henry set up the Edict of Nantes to protect Huguenots; foundations for a new government were set up, a strengthened bureaucracy, improved roads, administered justice, bridges, and revived agriculture.

Describe how Louis XIV strengthened the power of the monarchy.

First, Louis claimed divine right, attended every government affair, set up intendants and expanded bureaucracy, and the government under his reign became the strongest in Europe.

How did Louis's persecution of the Huguenots harm France?

Louis's persecution of Huguenots harmed France in one of the worst ways possible, because the Huguenots were one of the hardest working groups of France, and with their expulsion, the economy was severely hurt.

How did the achievements of the scientific revolution contribute to the Enlightenment?

Achievements such as the framework for modern chemistry, vaccines against smallpox, and the study of reason to apply in human society, were contributions to the Enlightenment

Explain the view of Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Baron de Montesquieu.

Thomas Hobbes viewed humans as rebellious, greedy, and disrespectful beings, while Locke viewed them with grace, claiming they were reasonable and smart beings, and Montesquieu believed that governments should be separated into three branches, with a checks and balances system to have a balance of power throughout governments.

How did philosophes influence ideas on society and economy?

The way that philosophes influenced ideas on these two matters was that in society, they emphasized the freedom of speech and thought, the conservation of human rights, and equality among everybody, while in economy, liberated economies and companies, to allow independent marketing, and to have no government influence or at least very little

4. Why were members of the Third Estate discontent with conditions under the old regime?

Urban workers earned very low pay, and would go hungry if bread prices rose. Not only did they receive little pay, they were taxed on everything, and owed services dating back to the medieval ages.

5. What economic troubles did France have in 1789?

Half of the government's income went to paying interests in its enormous debt.

What issues arose when Louis XVI called the Estates General in 1789?

Many issues arose, especially in the Third Estate, asking for changes and reforms. The voting also caused problems. Originally, there were only three votes, so that the 1st and 2nd Estate could outvote the 3rd.

What was the significance of the storming of the Bastille?

It became a symbol of the French Revolution. The supporters saw it as a blow to tyranny, and a step towards freedom.

What role did the people of Paris play in the French revolution?

The role that the people of Paris played was either participating in factions which competed for power, the Paris Commune, or in the middle class militia

Describe one reform that the National Assembly enacted through each of the following documents: The Declaration of the Rights of Man, Civil Constitution of the Clergy, Constitution of 1791

• The Declaration of the Rights of Man: Natural rights (liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression)
• Civil Constitution of the Clergy: Ended papal authority over the French Church
• Constitution of 1791: New legislative assembly had the power to collect taxes, make laws, and decide on issues of war and peace

Why did some people outside of France react negatively to the French Revolution?

People and European monarchs were given a bad perspective of the French revolution through propaganda which came from the fleeing émigrés

How did these feelings lead to war?

These feelings led to war because the radicals had held the upper hand in the Legislative Assembly, and then they engaged in a verbal war with the negatively inflicted European monarchs, which then escalated in to a real physical war

Why did radical revolutionaries oppose the monarchy?

Radical revolutionaries opposed the monarchy because they thought that their king was in league with the European Monarchs invading France, and so they decided to go against them.

How did the Reign of Terror cause the National Convention to be replaced by the Directory?

The reign of terror caused the convention to turn on to the Public Safety committee, and not only that, but the Reign of Terror consumed itself ending with Robespierre and the heads of the movement being killed, dramatically ending violence

7. Describe one effect on each of the following: Women, Daily life

• Women: They had the right to own land
• Daily Life: All people were granted citizenship.

Describe Napoleon Bonaparte's rise to power.

Grew up in military school, and wanted to make a name for himself during Revolution as a 20 year old lieutenant, he drove out British and Austrian forces out of places, moving ranks from general to political leader, declaring himself Consul for life.

What revolutionary reforms were undone by Napoleon?

He welcomed back and made peace with the Church, however allowed religious toleration, and encouraged émigrés to return.

How did Napoleon preserve some of the principles of the Enlightenment?

Napoleon opened all jobs of talent, kept religious toleration, the Napoleonic code had Enlightenment ideas, and centralized a strong government

How did Napoleon come to dominate most of Europe?

Napoleon became an ingenious general, always planning new tactics, which would surprise his enemy and highly efficient conquests. He redrew the map of Europe, annexing territories to different nations, he eliminated the Holy Roman Empire once and for all, and finally controlled through forceful diplomacy.

Why did his efforts to subdue Britain fail?

His efforts failed because the British trampled over the French fleet at the battle of Trafalgar, they imposed economic warfare throughout the ports, and both sides kept up a struggle back and forth, with the British not surrendering.

What challenges did Napoleon face in: Spain, Austria

• Spain: Many Spaniards remained loyal to their former king and devoted to the Catholic Church, and when Spanish upraised, the French fought them brutally back flaming hatred in Spain, creating guerilla warfare, and an army sent by the British to aid the Spanish.
• Austria: Spanish resistance flamed Austrian resistance, and tensions rose between the two, however for Austria it was a different story, almost all of the time Napoleon and the French won, in fact Napoleon married the Austrian Princess allowing kinship with the royalty of Europe

How did the defeat in Russia lead to Napoleon's downfall?

The defeat in Russia led to Napoleon's downfall because in the brutal survival against the Russians, Napoleon had lost many troops and many had deserted, which had decreased his reputation, and had to rush back to France to protect his country and people.

What were the chief goals of the Congress in Vienna?

The chief goals were to create a lasting piece by establishing a balance of power and protecting the system of monarchy.

Describe how the Industrial revolution changed daily life, becoming a turning point in history.

The industrial revolution started removing rural life by incorporating a more advanced lifestyle such as living in apartments with modern appliances, and machines in production facilities, discovering the speed of light, sewing machines, and anesthetics, were part of this movement à this advanced everything entirely in a more technological way

Identify three causes of the population explosion in Europe.

• Agricultural revolution
• Improved medical care
• Better hygiene and sanitation systems

Explain the impact of each of the following technologies: Steam power, Improved iron

• Steam Power: Steam power was an incorporated product into engines which were driven by coal, creating the steam engine - this would be a key power source throughout the industrial revolution
• Improved Iron: Improved iron led to the better and less expansive iron, which would be used more widely in areas such as railroads and machines

Describe four factors that helped bring about the Industrial Revolution in Britain.

• Large supplies of coal to power steam engines
• Large supply of iron to build machines
• Large numbers of workers were needed to run such facilities
• The agricultural revolution

How did the industrial revolution transform the textile industry?

The revolution turned into the textile industry because loads of cotton was transported in from the Indies, as the demand for cloth grew, new inventions for this industry were created, and these machines led to textile factories

How did transportation improve in the early 1800's? Give three examples.

• Steam locomotives were produced
• A major rail line
• Steamboats for transporting cargo turned into steam-powered freighters with iron hulls that carried 10-20x as much cargo as steamboats

Describe life in the new industrial city.

Massive urbanization took places, with small towns revolving around coal mines and industries evolving into giant cities, a thick polluted air, loud pounding noises of engines, the stink of the polluted rivers, working class lived in tenements while the middle and higher class lived in nice neighborhoods, diseases spread rapidly with filth and unsanitary conditions throughout the tenements.

What were the main characteristics of factory work?

The characteristics included long and stressing working hours, hazardous working environments were bodies could be mutilated or chopped off due to the machines, women were present, along with many children which would ensure the prosperity of a working family, if workers got injured or sick, they would lose their job

What special problems did factory work create for women?

The special problems that factory work create for women included new jobs where they would work for at least 12 hours out of their houses, then would have to return home and deal with nourishing and dealing with sick living conditions, which created a very harsh, dull, and stressful living for families.

How did the conditions of the early industrial age improve?

The conditions of the early industrial age improved with reformers passing laws to improve the working conditions, labor unions were set up, working class men gained the right to vote which gave them some political power, people could visit others in towns when the price of the railroad fell, more jobs arose, wages increased, 'horizons' widened and opportunity increased.

Describe the views of laissez-faire economists: Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, David Ricardo

• Adam Smith: Believed that a free market with unregulated goods and services would benefit everyone, more goods and lower prices, growing economy would encourage capitalists to reinvest new profits in ventures.
• Thomas Malthus: He believed that economic decline would come with a larger population growth, since the population would outpace the food supply and the poor would suffer, but his ideas became pessimistic once the food supply was growing rapidly as the centuries went by
• David Ricardo: Agreed with Malthus that the poor had many children à more children meant a higher labor force which meant less wages for other people, he encouraged the working class to limit their children for a better economic benefit

Contrast the approaches of utilitarians and socialists to solving economic problems.

The utilitarians adopted part of the laissez fair economics and also believed in the individual freedom and whether laws/actions brought happiness, but they also believed that the government should step in to set circumstances and aid the working class. The socialists aimed to eliminate a gap between the rich and the poor, by having means of production being owned by community as a whole rather than individuals, and this would not only benefit one class, but all the classes altogether.

Describe Karl Marx's view of history.

Karl Marx's view of history consisted of economics driving history, with struggle between the classes. The "haves" have always had means of production and attainable power while the "have-nots" were the working class. He believed that the working class would be triumphant in the end and set up a communist society in which everybody would benefit, leaving no rich or poor.

How have events challenged Karl Marx's view of history?

Events have challenged this view because government such as the North American and European ended up reforming their policies in a way that would be helping the working class, where as Marx predicted the working class would have a revolution and be triumphant - this led to flaws in the Marxist argument which led to a loss of popularity. However other areas such as Asia, Latin America, and Africa would adopt Marxist ideas and establish a communist based government to suit their own needs, based on the situation they faced in their time of history.

Describe three causes of the new imperialism.

• The Industrial Revolution called for a demand for new resources for production, and corporations hoped to expand economies overseas, and colonies offered valuable outlet for Europe's growing population
• Steam-powered merchant ships needed coal and supplies from bases around the world, and so was done by seizing ports and islands, as well as Nationalism
• People interpreted the ideas of Darwinism, in which the Europeans where the fittest out of all the people out there and the most superior being powerful and military capable of conquering and smashing everyone else below them

What were three reasons for the success of western imperialism?

• Old civilizations were in decline giving the freshly prepared European forces an advantage, since nations and kingdoms were not organized and strong enough
• The westerners had strong economies, powerful militaries, well organized governments, and advanced technology and medicine (were able to figure how to treat certain tropical diseases)
• Their military breakthroughs worked as an argument to persuade the Africans and Asians to accept Western control

How did people oppose Western imperialism?

People opposed Western imperialism by organizing nationalists movement to expel imperialists and strengthening societies, and the use of verbal argument where some Europeans argued that it was immoral and imposing undemocratic rule on other people

Describe three different forms of imperial rule.

• Colonies: enabled direct and indirect forms of ruling in which local rulers or officials would govern the colonies, and would help carve a new path for the next generation to rule imperialistically
• Protectorates: local rulers who were expected to follow the advice of European advisors on matters such as missionaries activity and trade
• Spheres of influence - areas claimed by foreign powers giving them the right to exclusive investments or trading privileges

Describe one early development in each region of Africa in the early 1800's.

• North Africa - close ties with the Muslim world and under the rule of the declining Ottomans
• West Africa - Jihad movement brought about by Muslim leaders
• East Africa - Islamic influence provided a profitable and continuable trade between the Middle East and Central Asia such as cloth and weaponry in exchange for slaves
• South Africa - Shaka united Zulu region, however this triggered many wars and migrations

How did European contact with Africa increase?

European contacted increased with Africa through the use of missionaries and explorers, who would set out to promote Christianity and trade throughout African states, which believed would end turmoil and conflict throughout Africa

Which European nations were most successful in the scramble for African colonies?

France, Britain, and Germany.

Describe two examples of African resistance to European imperialism.

• Ethiopia was able to resist European imperialism by modernizing its nation. Along with that, a well-trained and powerful military was put together, which helped fend off invading forces such as the Italians.
• An African elite class emerged, with Western Educated minds, these people helped forge nationalist movements to promote independence and self-determination.

What problems faced new nations in Latin America?

Some of the problems which new Latin American nations faced included a system of colonial legacy, where old problems such as racial prejudice, limited voting rights, unevenly distributed land, and peasants which worked on great estates called haciendas, were found. Regionalism hurt these nations as well as forces that resisted to the central government called caudillos.

How did Imperialism encourage economic independence?

Imperialism encouraged economic independence in the way where foreign powers would be the major trading partners to developing Latin American countries, and they would be depending on these nations to develop, however once these Latin American nations became developed with flooding of foreign goods, local business, and trade, these countries would be entering the world economy and would be wanting to be independent.

Describe two ways the United States influenced Latin America.

The United States established the Monroe Doctrine, which prevented European powers to claim any imperialism or colonization over the Americas, which became a key for the United States to benefit from the Latin Americas. The U.S. also wanted to build a canal linking the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, which would dramatically reduce the costs of trade. However to do this, they had to claim the land which belonged to Colombia, so they armed the Panamanians to fight and gain that land from Colombia, which was later handed to the U.S.

Describe how each of the following affect industrialized nations and traditional cultures: Money Economy, Dependency, Modernization

• Money Economy: The money economy replaced the barter system, and this gave government officials the chance to tax people, men had to leave their families to work and gain money to pay their taxes, and when they left, families were disrupted, where as in other countries, sons were kept home to farm and daughters were sent away to find jobs
• Dependency: Economic dependency meant that the colony's economies relied on foreign trade and goods to fuel and prosper the colonies' economies, however when demand for goods fell, people suffered, and in addition to that, most of the locally produced goods of a nation were sent outside to export, leaving the local community in famine when demands for goods were low.
• Modernization: Modernization brought advancement to colonies, where railroads linked workplaces, communication systems, transportation networks, and modern banking systems. People used this advancement to develop industry, buying modern farm equipment, and promoting growth.

How did Imperialism affect cultures around the world?

Imperialism admitted western ways such as religion, society, business, and language. The establishment of schools and hospitals by missionaries, Christianity, a blend of ancient and new ways of living, and a mixture of goods between continents, as an effect from trade, into the colonized areas.

Why did imperialism lead to increased tensions among the industrialized powers of Europe?

Imperialism led to increased tensions between the European powers because the struggle for imperial power among areas such as Africa, Central Asia, and the Middle East created a political competition of conquest, which led to rising tensions.

Identify three peace efforts of the late 1800's and early 1900's.

• The modern Olympic games were established to promote peace and love
• The Nobel Peace Prize was created and awarded to those who sought for peace
• First Universal Peace Conference in the Netherlands → Hague Tribunal was established to settle disputes between nations

Describe how each of the following served to inflame tensions in Europe: Nationalism, Imperial Rivalry, Militarism

• Nationalism: Nationalism ran high in France and Germany, where patriotic French longed to regain the lost provinces.
• Imperial Rivalries: Nations such as Germany developed economically fast with their factories while other nations such as Britain didn't, competition between colonizing territories also created rivalries - France and Britain teamed up against Germany as a result from the attempt of the Moroccan conquest.
• Militarism: Militarism happened as a cause from rising tensions between countries, where European powers embarked on an arms race and glorified each one's military - as each side became suspicious of the other, countries kept spending and expanding the militaries (Britain continued military spending when it came suspicious of Germany's overseas colonies acquisition and navy expanding).

Why did European nations form alliances?

European nations formed alliances because of the distrust between nations, to pledge countries to defend one another, and create forces where no one would dare attack.

How did alliances increase fears of war?

Alliances increased fear of war since the growth of treaties into huge alliances caused a rise in international tensions, where the war could easily be sparked by even the smallest of things.

Why was the Archduke Francis Ferdinand assassinated?

The archduke was assassinated because the Serbians viewed the Austrians as foreign oppressors, and the day of the Archduke's visit was the day in which Serbia freed itself from the Turkish-Ottoman rule, in 1912.

How did Austria-Hungary react?

The nation reacted very negatively to the situation and demanded an ultimatum to Serbia consisting of punishing any Serbian official involved in the murder, and include Austria in the investigation. However the Serbians didn't comply with the whole deal, and this gave the Austro-Hungarians the opportunity to invade Serbia.

Describe how each of the following nations was drawn into the conflict: Germany, Russia, France, Britain

• Germany: Germany suggested to the Austro-Hungarians the idea of taking drastic action on the Serbians, and handed them a "blank check"
• Russia: Russia had been called for help by Serbia, and mobilized its troops for battle, and appealed to France
• France: When Russia appealed to France, France gave Russia the same support Germany gave to Austria for this conflict - the Germans told the French to remain out of the conflict, but they refused, and at this the Germans declared war on them
• Britain: At the time Belgium had signed a treaty with Britain and other nations for neutrality, and when Belgium was invaded by the Germans, outraged, Britain declared war on Germany

Who do most modern historians think was responsible for the war?

The modern historians believed that both sides - the Central Powers and Allies - shared the blame.

Why did the war on the Western Front turn into a stalemate?

The war turned into a stalemate because both sides dug into trenches for the winter, and this dragged on for four years.

Describe three ways new technology affected the war.

• The rapid fire machine guns mowed down troops
• Artillery allowed troops to shell enemies from miles away
• Poison gas caused troops to get blisters, choke, or get blinded → death

What role did Europe's overseas colonies and dominions play in World War I?

Europe's overseas colonies and dominions were brought into the war, by providing troops, laborers, supplies, and also German colonies were overran by the Allies, bringing them into the war.

What measures did wartime governments take to control: National Economies, Public opinion

• National economies: Governments inquired military conscription, set up a forced civilian labor system, raised taxes, borrowed huge amounts of money, rationed food and other products, they set prices, and forbid strikes.
• Public opinion: Countries kept the public from knowing complete casualty figures and discouraging news, and waged a propaganda war by making up tales of atrocities committed against each other.

What impact did wartime failures have on Russia?

The impact that wartime failures had on Russia included incompetent generals and corruption, which destroyed public confidence. People as a result, rioted which turned into a huge revolution in St. Petersburg, overthrowing the Czar. This reformed the government completely.

Why did the United States declare war on Germany?

The U.S. declared war on Germany for a number of reasons. German submarine warfare had grown unrestricted, and attacked vessels leased by the U.S. and carried American passengers. People also felt more unified with the Allies since they shared a common culture, but finally, after the Zimmerman note was released, anti-German feeling arose greatly in the United States and the cry for war was high.

What impact did American entry have on the war?

With the Americans in the war, few soldiers got into combat, however they proved themselves to be good and efficient. The Americans also gave the needed boost to the weary allies, to be able to push the Germans back once and for all.

Describe conditions in Europe after World War I.

The conditions in Europe were terrible. A pandemic spread across Europe, more than 8.5 million casualties, reparations were needed badly, and political turmoil resulted, with European governments collapsing, and colonies looking for more independence.

Identify three issues to be settled at the Paris Peace Conference.

• The lands to have been handed to Italy secretly, which violated the principle of self-determination
• People which demanded states of their own, had territories which overlapped
• The conflicting demands → led to Wilson standing strong on the point of the International League of Nations

How did Woodrow Wilson's goals at the peace talks differ from those of other Allied leaders?

Wilson's talks differed from other Allied leaders because he had a true vision for peacekeeping, and enlightening hope in people. He was an urging reformer, and by creating the 14 points, he pushed for peace and let people know of his goal.

How did the peace treaties both follow and violate Wilson's principle of self-determination?

The peace treaties violated the principle of determination in the way that self-determination was placed in for Europe, and not in the outer territories - known as the system of mandates, also the principle was violated when the Italian prime minister insisted in the secret giving of lands to Italy. However the peace treaties followed self-determination in Eastern Europe, when the German, Austrian, and Russian empires fell, many nations emerged. However Eastern Europe remained a center of conflict, with respect to the self-determination principle.

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