Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars; demonstrated that different weights descend at the same rate; perfected the refracting telescope that enabled him to make many discoveries (1564-1642) , Publicized Copernicus's findings; used the telescope to study moon and planets; added discoveries concerning the laws of gravity; condemned by the Catholic church for his work.
Drafting instrument used for drawing circles
An instrument used by sailors to determine their location by observing the position of the stars and planets
Long ships propelled by slaves, carried most Euro trade before and during 1400s
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts.
Those who own stock in a business; same as stockholders.
An economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests
Balance of Trade
The difference in value over a period of time of a country's imports and exports of merchandise
Taxes on imports or exports
A leader of Florence, he used his power and wealth to become a great patron of the arts (helping to grow the Renaissance).
People who specialize in studying the grammar, history, poetry, and rhetoric. Taught life should be meaningful. Displayed a critical approach to learning.
Branches of knowledge concerned with human beings and their culture: philosophy, literature, and the fine arts, as distinguished from the sciences
An education based on study of he traditions of ancient Greece and Rome.
Italian Renaissance writer, described government in the way it actually worked (ruthless). He wrote The Prince (the end justifies the mean).
Known as the father of Renaissance Humanism. He lived from 1304-1374 as a cleric and committed his life to humanistic pursuits and careful study of the classics. He resisted writing in the Italian vernacular except for his sonnets, which were composed to his "lady love" who spoke no Latin.
The Book of The Courtier. Described the ideal of a Renaissance man who was well versed in the Greek and Roman classics, and accomplished warrior, could play music, dance, and had a modest but confident personal demeanor. It outlined the qualities of a true gentleman.
Book of the Courtier
This was a book written by Castiglione. In it, he epitomized the main ideas of Italian humanism. It said a successful man was one who could integrate knowledge of ancient languages and history w/ athletic, musical, and military skillz, all while being polite and exhibiting a high moral character.
A 19th century artistic movement in which writers and painters sought to show life as it is rather than life as it should be
1532-1625 First great woman artist of Renaissance. From newly artistocratic Cremona family. Well-educated (unusual for time - other notable exceptions - Thomas More's daughters). Was court painter to K. Philip II of Spain. Married to nobleman who died then remarried to merchant sea capt. Rich, celebrated & long lived. Sponsored other artists. Painted mostly portraits and a few religious paintings. Achieved much but had advantages not available to most. Noteworthy: ONLY RECENTLY has her work been examined and life studied. There is still a tendency to think of Renaissance artists as all having been men. Was not even given consideration as a Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtle!
Florentine painter who gave up the stiff Byzantine style and developed a more naturalistic style
He used light and dark imagery to illustrate different feelings and emotions
Leonardo da Vinci
Italian painter and sculptor and engineer and scientist and architect
The time between 1400 and 1500 when the Renaissance was at its peak. This was when cultural values were formed, artistic and literary achievements occurred, and Renaissance style was largely defined.
Florentine sculptor and painter and architect
Italian painter whose many paintings exemplify the ideals of the High Renaissance (1483-1520)
Representations of the Virgin Mary
One of fourt greatest contributors to art, Holy Roman emperor sponsored his works, became one of first to get money for paintings, made Assumption of the Virgin
The Northern Renaissance
The Renaissance began in Italy but continued in the North. Between the Italian and Northern Renaisssances, there were a few differences in the styles of art. Northern artists retained a great fondness to Gothic Art. They also had a darker style and stayed closer to religion than Italian artists. Painters in the North were have said to developed the technique of using light and shadow.
German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and the first to use a press (1400-1468)
Most influencial Humanist of N Europe, entered monestary when young but left to pursue classics studies, believed early Xianity existed in harmony w/ classical civilizationm published church spiritually lack criticisms (Most famous= Praise of Folly)
English humanist, wrote Utopia
book by Thomas More, criticized his society, described ideal 1, everyone equal and worked to help society, lived in harmony
Praise of Folly
written by Erasmus, ridiculed ignorance, superstition, vice among Xians, criticized fasting, religious pilgrimages, church interpretations of parts of Bible
Most prominent lit. figure of Renaissance, showed personality and emotions w/ great skill
Flanders, group painters that made own style
Used paintings to criticize cruelty and intolerance of peasants he loved
First to see possibility of printed drawings in books
Hans Holbein the Younger
German, portrait emphasis reflects Renaissance interest in individual
The Protestant Reformation
Humanists said church more interest in income and wanted emphasis on personal faith and spirituality, church ignored, religius revolution- split church in W Europe and made new ones
Monk sent to raise funds for St. Peter's Basilica building in Northern Germany, asked people to buy indulgences, his misuse appalled Northern humanists
Protested Tetzel's selling w/ 95 Theses, wanted to be monk but found church methods didnt help him overcome sin, made Lutheranism, considered self reformer, disagreed w/ doctrines, made own church doctine
Simple faith that lead everyone to salvation
Written by Luther to challenge Tetzel, posted on church door in 1517, about indulgences, sales declined, news spread
Pope Leo X
Declared Luther heretic (for church and publications bashing church), excommunicated him
Holy Roman Emperor Charles V
Summoned Luther to Imperial Diet of Worms to put punishment in effect, opposed Luther's doctrine and didnt want Lutheranism to spread, sent armies against protestants
Diet of Worms
Special meeting of rulers of the empire, Luther commanded to renounce ideas and refused--> became outlaw, weak gov't couldnt enforce Diet's ruling
Used spells and formulas to change one thing to another
Thinking transformation from new way of investigation
Inquiry that includes careful experiments and math to verify results and make logical deductions
Made heliocentric theory but couldn't prove with available instruments and math
Made laws of motion and universal gravitation- explained movements of objects and planets
Law of Universal Gravitation
All bodies attract each other w/ force can be measures (holds sun and planet system by keeping in orbits)
English chemist, discovered oxygen (didn't name it Antoine Lavosier did)
Anglo- Irish scientist, founder of modern chemistry
Showed fire not element, proved was reaction, demonstrated law of conservation of matter