2. Cytoplasmic Membrane
3. Nucleus (Ekuaryote) or Nucleoid (Prokaryote)
5. Cell Wall
Basic Cellular Structures
Used in protein synthesis and are NOT organelles
Prokaryote and Eukaryote
Two types of cells
Simpler internal structure and lack membrane-enclosed organelles
Bacteria and Archaea
Examples of Prokaryotes
Larger, more complex and have membrane-enclosed organelles
Algae, Fungi, Protozoa, Animals
Examples of Eukaryotes
Non-cellular, reproduce only inside of a host cell, and lack many characteristics of living things
What virus causes colds?
What virus causes rabies?
In a bacterial cell, the cytoplasm is surrounded by this lipid membrane boundry
What contains DNA in the cytoplasm of a Bacterial Cell?
"Fluid" selective permeability barrier made of phospholipids and proteins that form a bilayer with a hydrophillic exterior and hydrophobic interior
Each layer in the phospholipid bilayer of the cytoplasmic membrane is called a?
Glycerol with ester links to 2 fatty acids
Group that faces the cytoplasm or periplasm
(dissolve in water)
Fatty acids lined up inside the membrane
(don't dissolve in water)
The result of the attraction of nonpolar fatty acid portions of one phospholipid layer for other layer
Integral Membrane Proteins
These span the cytoplasmic membrane
Peripheral Membrane Proteins
These are bound to the surface of the cytoplasmic membrane
1. Permeability Barrier
2. Structural Support
3. Energy Conservation
Functions of the Cytoplasmic Membrane
Prevents leakage of cytoplasmic metabolites into the environment and transportation of substances (nutrients and waste products) into and out of the cell
Water and small, uncharged particles
What are the only things that can freely diffuse through the membrane due to the hydrophilic outside and hydrophobic inside?
Site of many proteins involved in transport, bioenergetics and chemotaxis
Site of generation and use of the protein motive force
Generates energy by respiration in eukaryotes
Where does respiration occur in prokaryotes?
Respiration and Photosynthesis
Two forms of energy conservation
Photosynthetic eukaryotes carry out photosynthesis here
Photosynthetic prokaryotes carry out photosynthesis here
What do eukaryotes use to reinforce their cytoplasmic membrane?
What is an example of a sterol?
What do Bacteria use to reinforce their cytoplasmic membrane?
What do Archaea use to reinforce their cytoplasmic membrane by increasing the stability at high temperatures and low pH?
A porous cage-like structure that makes up the bacterial cell wall.
The bacterial cell wall
N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) and N-acytelmuramic acid (NAM)
Two sugars that make up the backbone of peptidoglycan
Short chains of amino acids that hold the sugars together
Unusual amino acid found in the crosslinks of Gram negative bacteria
Provides rigidity and shape to the cell and prevents it from exploding due to high pressure inside the cell
Function of Peptidoglycan
Since peptidoglycan is unique to bacteria, what is it a great target for?
What does Penicillin inhibit that is the crosslink for the peptides?
This is produced by many organisms and it cleaves the lactam ring of penicillin, inactivating the penicillin
Lack peptidoglycan so their cell walls are made of other polysaccharides such as pseudopeptidoglycan, have a paracrystalline surface layer cell wall, or have S-layers
Only have a few layers of peptidoglycan--thin
Have many layers (up to 40) of peptidoglycan
The cell walls of Gram-positive Bacteria are reinforced by these negatively charged acids
The crosslinks within peptidoglycan of Gram-positive bacteria contain this
Enzyme that destroys peptidoglycan, leading to cell lysis
What is found in animal secretions and is thought to be major line of defense against infections by bacteria?
Outer lipopolysaccharide (LPS) layer and inner phospholipid layer
What makes up the lipid bilayer of a Gram-Negative bacteria?
These are found within the membrane of a Gram-negative bacteria and are used in transport
Toxic portion of the lipopolysacchardie (LPS) layer of the Gram-negative bacteria. It has a toxic effect on humans and is released when the cell dies
Transmembrane proteins that allow for permeability through the outer membrane by creating channels that cross the membrane
Water-filled channels through which small substances can pass
Channels with binding sites for certain molecules that only allow those molecules to pass through
Space between the outer and cytoplasmic membrane of a Gram-negative Bacteria
Hydrolytic enzymes and Nutrient Transporter Binding proteins
Proteins that are contained in the periplasm of a Gram-negative Bacteria
Capsule, S layer, Thick Cell wall, Thin Periplasm, and Cytoplasmic Membrane
The Gram-Positive Envelope from the outside in contains:
Part of the Gram-positive and Gram-negative envelopes that is made of a polysaccharide; not all species have it
Part of the Gram-positive envelope that is made of proteins
Thick Cell Wall
Part of the Gram-positive envelope that is made of amino acids crosslinks in peptidoglycan. Contains Techoic acids for strength
Capsule, Outer Membrane, Thin Cell Wall, Thick Periplasm, and Cytoplasmic Membrane
The Gram-negative envelope from the outside in contains:
Part of the Gram-negative envelope that is made of lipopolysacchardies
Thin Cell Wall
Part of the Gram-negative envelope that is made of amino acid crosslinks in peptidoglycan
A cell's complete set of genes
What is DNA arranged to form?
Prokaryotes have a singular circular chromosome and sometimes circular extrachromosomal DNA called
Eukaryotes contain chromosomes.
Membrane-enclosed structure found in eukaryotes that contains the chromosomes
Mass of DNA found in prokaryotes that is not bound by a membrane
The Bacterial Nucleoid
Single loop of double stranded DNA that is attached to the cell envelope--no membrane separtes DNA from cytoplasm
~4e6 bp in many bacteria.
The bacterial nucleoid is compacted via
The growth of most microorganisms occurs by
A cell elongates slightly as it grows and the cytoplasm pinches in the middle at this location
Where the cell actually divides and adds a new wall at the cell equator
This is how DNA replicates, allowing it to begin the next replication before the cell divides
Occurs at the equator of the cell so that there is an equal division and each daughter cell has the same shape
Division apparatus in the cell formed by Fts proteins
Required for cell division and chromosome replication
Defines the division protein plane in prokaryotes; polymerizes to form a ring where the cell division will occur
ATP-hydrolyzing enzyme; provides energy for assembly of other proteins to the ring
Involved in peptidoglycan synthesis for the new cell wall. Activity is blocked by penicillin
Helps define cell shape by directionally exerting pressure against CM
Filamentous Sprial Shaped Bands
MreB forms these bands around the inside of the cell under the cytoplasmic membrane
Coccus shaped bacteria lack this gene and therefore take on the default spherical bacteria shape
These are inserted into preexisting wall material to synthesize a new cell wall during bacterial growth
Creates openings in existing cell wall to make space for new cell wall glycans to be inserted
Autolysis (Spontaneous Cell Lysis)
May occur if there is an error in inserting new cell wall material
Hydrophobic lipid alcohol that binds N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylmuramic acid, and pentapide peptidoglycan precursors. Helps transport these new glycan unites through CM to become part of the growing cell wall
Formation of peptide crosslinks between NAMs and bonds peptidoglycan precursors into expanding peptidoglycan layer. Reaction is inhibited by penicillin and cell lysis occurs
Densley compacted in the cytoplasm
Prokaryotic cells often contain these granules that function as storage material or to orient the cell
Intracellular particles of magnetite that allow the organism to respond to a magnetic field
Anaerobic areas like mud or at the bottom of lakes
Where can magnetosomes be found?
What are examples of inclusion granules?
Inclusion granule that stores inorganic phosphate in prokaryotic cells
Glycogen and Poly-B-hydroxybutyrate
Inclusion granules that are used as a carbon and energy source
Inclusion granule that is used as an energy source in prokaryotic cells; some gram-negative prokaryotes can store this in its elemental form in globules in the periplasm
Non-motile extensions that help bacteria attach to surfaces and to other bacteria; NOT for motility, strictly for attachment
Hollow, non-motile tubes made of protein called pilin that connect some cells. They are longer than fimbriae and shorter than flagella
PIli are used to move DNA from one cell to another by this process
Sticky polsaccharide layer surrounding the cell and helps the cell attach to objects
Phagocytosis and Dessication
The capsule protects the cell from:
Long, helical protein filaments that is attached at the ends or over the whole cell
Drives the CW or CCW rotation of the flagella to propel the cell
Movement of bacterial flagella
Movement of eukaryotic flagella
Single flagellum at one end; when it looks more like a tail
Several flagella at one or both sides
Several flagella all around the cell
One flagella on each end
Basal Body, Hook, and Filament
3 parts that make up the structure of the flagella
Imbedded within the cell envelope
The basal body is made of 2 or 4 protein rings connected by a
G+ and G-
G+ and G-
Ring that is located in the cytoplasm and attaches to the inner surface of the cytoplasmic membrane
Ring that is located in the cytoplasmic membrane
Ring that is located in the peptidoglycan layer
Ring that is located in the LPS layer
Curved structure made of protein; connects filament to basal body
Long, rigid, helical structures made of a protein call flagellin
Gliding can occur through this way that moves the cell along a solid surface
Directed movement of organisms in response to chemical signals
Directed movement of organisms in response to light
Directed movement of organisms in response to oxygen
Directed movement of organisms in response to ionic strength
Attractants cause what kind of rotation?
Flagella bundle together and push the cell forward ("run")
What occurs in CCW rotation?
Repellents cause what kind of rotation?
Flagella fly apart and "Tumble"--change direction
What occurs in CW rotation?
What do runs + tumbles cause?
What detects attractant concentrations like sugars and amino acids?
What increases and prolongs the run so that the net movement of bacteria is toward the attractants?
Phospholipids and Proteins
What is the cytoplasmic membrane made out of?
The outside layer of the cytoplasmic membrane is?
The inside layer of the cytoplasmic membrane is?
Transport, bioenergetics, and chemotaxis
The structural support function of the cytoplasmic membrane is the sit of many proteins involved in?
Peptidoglycan (Bacterial Cell Wall)
What consists of sugar chains wrapped in circles around the cell that are linked to each other by short chains of amino acids?
The backbone sugars of peptidoglycan are arranged in?
Between N-acytelmuramic acids
Where are the crosslinks located for peptidoglycan?
What is a great target for antibiotics?
Widespread use of antibiotics selects for?
Lysozome doesn't have an effect this, which is what some Archaea cell walls are made of
Where are resistant genes usually located on prokaryotes?
Under the Cytoplasmic Membrane
Where does MreB form the filamentous spiral shaped bands inside of the cell?
What helps transfer the new glycan unites through the CM to become part of the growing cell wall?
Hydrophobic Lipid Alcohol
What is Bactoprenol?
What bonds peptidoglycan precursors into the expanding peptidoglycan layer?
What organism is the amphitrichous arrangement typically seen in?
How many protein rings make up a Gram-positive bacteria?
How many protein rings make up a Gram-negative bacteria?
C ring and MS ring
What protein rings are seen in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria?
P ring and L ring
What protein rings are only seen in Gram-negative bacteria?
What ring is the end of the central rod attached to?
The inner surface of the cytoplasmic membrane
What is the C ring attached to?
Filamentous cyanobacteria, Myxococcus, Cytophage, and Flavobacterium
What prokaryotes move by gliding motility instead of flagella?
What are the directed movements toward or away from a chemical or physical gradient in the environment known as?