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Lipids

contain more than twice the calories per gram (9 kcal) as proteins and carbohydrates. (163)

Lipids

should comprise 20% to 35% of adult's calorie intake. (163)

Cardiovascular disease

major killer disease in North America. (191)

Triglycerides

most common type of lipid found in the body and in foods. (165)

Lipids

include fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, sterols and cholesterols. (do not dissolve readily in water) (163)

Fatty acid

simplest form of lipids; long chain of carbons bonded with hydrogens. (165)

Phospholipids

class of lipid built on backbone of glycerol, fatty acid replaced with phosphorus or nitrogen. (166)

Lecithin

(example of phospholipid and emulsifier) participate in fat digestion in small intestine; contains a part that attracts and repels water. (166)

Cholesterol

(sterol) used to form certain hormones and bile acids and is incorporated in to cell structures. (Body can make all cholesterol, triglycerides, and phospholipids it needs.) (167,186)

Saturated fat

Animal fats are the chief contibutors of saturated fatty acids to North American diet. (170)

Emulsifier

ability to keep mixture of lipids and water from separating. (phospholipids; monoglycerides, lechithin and bile acids) (170, 186)

Cholesterol

only found in animal foods. (170)

Fat replacement

5 types: water, starch derivatives, fibers, protein -derived, engineered fats (173)

Lipoproteins

vehicles for transport of lipids from the small intestine and liver to body tissues. (178)

Lipoproteins

4 groups: chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, HDL (179)

Liver

takes up various lipids from the blood and is manufacturing site for lipids and cholesterol. (180)

LDL

transports cholesterol to tissues. (181)

HDL

donates the cholesterol primarily to other lipoproteins for transport back to the liver to be excreted.

Triglycerides

used for energy storage, insulation, and transportation of fat-soluble vitamins. (184)

Omega-3 acids

decreases blood clotting and inflammatory processes in body. (165,182)

Glycerol

3-carbon backbone in all triglycerides. (163)

Chylomicrons

arise from intestinal cells. (179)

Hydrogenation

increases shelf life, makes it harder, more saturated, reduces tendency for oxidative breakdown. (adds hydrogen to unsaturated fat, changing fat to trans fat) (174)

Cardiovascular disease

high blood LDL, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, smoking. (191)

Bile acids

made from cholesterol. (186)

Fat intake

North American diet consists of 33% of calories of fat.

Heart attacks

typical signs are dizziness, sweating, and irregular heartbeat. (191)

Dietary cholesterol

has less effect on blood cholesterol than saturated fat.

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