Chapter 14-World War I and Its Aftermath

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Hague Tribunal

a world court to settle disputes between nations

Pan-Slavism

nationalism, it held that all Slavic peoples sharea common nationality

Central Powers

German Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and the Kingdom of Bulgaria.

Allies

United Kingdom, France, and the Russian Empire

pacifism

opposition to all war

militarism

the glorification of the military

entente

a nonbiding agreement to follow common policies

Francis Ferdinand

archduke of Austria-hungaryvisited Sarajevo, was killed

Gavrilo Princip

he killed the archduke

Schlieffen Plan

Italy chose to remain neutral (neutrality - policy of supporting neither side in a war). Britain makes decision to support its ally France because of Germany war plans. General Alfred von Schlieffen planned to attack France. His plan was to avoid a two-front war against France (west) and Russia (east). He thought that Russia's army would be slow to mobilize. Under his plan, Germany first defeated France and then fought Russia. To ensure victory (west) his plan required German armies to march Belgium and swing south behind French lines. August 3 Germany invaded Belgium. Britain declared war on Germany, Britain and other European powers signed a treaty ensuring Belgium's neutrality.

ultimatum

final set of demands

mobilize

prepare its military forces for war

neutrality

a policy supportingneither side in a war

Western Front

Battle of Marne pushed back German offensive and destroyed Germany's hopes for quick victory on the Western Front.Warring armies in the Western Front burrowed into vast system of trenches, stretching from Swiss frontier to English Channel.

Verdun

German forces overwhelm the French at Verdun. French defenders held firm, but 11-month struggle cost more than half-million causalities on both sides.

Somme

Allied offensive at Somme River was costly. In single grisly day, 60,000 British soldiers were killed or wounded, in five-month battle, one million soldiers were killed without either side winning an advantage.

Tannenberg

At battle of Tannenberg, Russians suffered one of the worst defeats of the wat causing them to retreat. After Tannenberg, armies in the east fought on Russian soil. Russia was the least industrialized of the great powers and was poorly equipped to fight a modern war. Troops sometimes lacked even rifles. Still, Russian commanders continued to throw masses of peasant soldiers into combat.

Caporetto

Austrians and Germans launched major offensive against the Italian position at Caporetto. The Italians retreated in disarray. Later, British and French forces helped stop Central Power's advance into Italy. Still Caporetto proved as disastrous for Italy as Tannenberg had been for Russia.

Gallipoli

Turkish troops tied down the trapped Allies on beaches.

T.E. Lawrence

The British sent Colonel T. E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia) to support Arab revolt. Lawrence led guerilla raids against Turks, dynamiting bridges and supply trains. Ottoman empire lost a great deal of territories to the Arabs, including the key city of Baghdad.

stakemate

a deadlock in which neither side is able to defeat the other

no man's land

empty tract, pocked with shell holes, every house and tree were destroyed

zeppelin

large gas-filled balloons

U-boat

German submarines

convoy

groups of merchant ships protected by warships

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

Lenin signed the treaty with Germnythetreaty ended Russian participation in WW 1

Woodrow Wilson

president, insisted that Americans as citizens of a neutral country, had a right to safe travel on the seas

Lusitania

British boat that contained 128 Americans, bombarded by Germany

Fourteen Points

Wilson in his fourteen points wanted, self-determination

total war

the channeling of a nation's entire resources into a war effort

conscription

"the draft", which required all young men to be ready for military or other service.

propaganda

is the spreading of ideas to promote a cause or to damage an opposing cause

atrocity

horrible acts against innocent people

self-determination

the right of poeple to choose their own form of government

armistice

agreement to end fighting

David Lloyd George

British prime minister knew that his people wated harsh treatment for Germany

Georges Clemenceau

French leader, anti-German policy, goal was to weaken Germany do that it could never again threaten France

League of Nations

the league was based on collective security

Treaty of Versailles

The treaty said that Germany will take full responsability of the war and had to pay the reparations.

pandemic

is the spread of a disease across the entire country, continent or in this case the whole world

reparations

payments for war damage

collective security

a system in which a group of nations acts as one to preserve the peace of all

mandate

territories administered by western powers

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