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Foramen magnum, axis, coccyx, and Posterior atlantooccipital membrane

The spinal dura mater attaches to what structures

Epidural fat and internal venous plexus

What separates the spinal dura mater from the ligamentum flavum

C1-C4

Where are the roots for the cervical plexus located

occiput to the shoulder

The cervical plexus cutaneous terminals conduct sensation from where to where

Anterior neck muscles

What side of the neck does the cervical plexus innervate

C2 dorsal ramus

Greater occipital nerve is the __ dorsal ramus

No

Does the Greater occipital nerve belong to the Cerivcal Plexus?

Ansa Cervicalis

C1 makes the upper root of what part of the cervical plexus

T11-L1 vertebral level or L1-S3 cord level

The Lumbosacral enlargement of the spinal cord is located at:

L3

The lowest disc level that most likely can affect the nerve roots of the lumbar plexus is?

Lamina IX only

In which Rexed laminae are the somatic lower motor neurons located?

Lamina VI, VII, VIII, and X

Which neurons also act as interneurons?

Superior cervical ganglion

Where are the postganglionic sympathetic neurons for the radiating muscles of the iris located?

Ciliary ganglion

contains the Postganglionic Parasympathetic neurons for both the Ciliary muscles of the lens, and the Circular muscles of the iris.

Pterygopalatine ganglion

contains the postganglionic Parasympathetic neurons for the Lacrimal gland as well as Nasal and palatine glands

Otic ganglion

contains the postganglionic Parasympathetic neurons for the Parotid gland.

Stellate ganglion

contains The Postganglionic Sympathetic neurons.

Sympathetic postganglionic fibers

fibers that innervating the Heart, they also travel along with C7, C8, and T1 spinal nerves to innervate the blood vessels along with Erector Pile muscles of corresponding regions

Pterygopalatine ganglion in pterygopalatine fossa

The postganglionic parasympathetic neurons of the Lacrimal nerve are located in:

The Inferior Salivatory Nucleus

where the Preganglionic Parasympathetic neurons of cranial nerve IX (Glossopharyngeal Nerve) are located. These neurons synapse with the Postganglionic neurons in Otic ganglion.

Dorsal motor nucleus in the medulla

is the location for the Preganglionic Parasympathetic neurons of cranial nerve X (Vagus Nerve).

Dorsal motor nucleus in the medulla

The fibers of these neurons travels with the Vagus to reach the postganglionic neurons located at their target areas which are the lungs, stomach, small intestines, and two segments of the large intestines.

Superior salivatory nucleus in the pons

the location for the Preganglionic Parasympathetic neurons of cranial nerve VII (Facial Nerve).

Superior salivatory nucleus in the pons

The fibers of these neurons travel through different nerves to reach the Postganglionic Parasympathetic neurons in Pterygopalatine and Submandibular Ganglions.

Edinger-Westphal Nucleus

the location of the Preganglionic Parasympathetic neurons of cranial nerve III (Oculomotor Nerve).

Edinger-Westphal Nucleus

The fibers of these neurons synapse with Postganglionic neurons in Ciliary Ganglion.

Postganglionic Sympathetic (Not Parasympathetic)

The Sweat Glands and Hair Follicles are innervated by the __ fibers.

all ventricles and the subarachnoid space

At any given moment, there is about 125 ml of cerebrospinal fluid located in:

dilation of the pupil, ptosis, lateral deviation of the eye, and Paralysis of ciliary muscles

characteristics of Oculomotor nerve lesion

+0Y

This symbol indicates the rotation of the head toward the left.

-0X.

This symbol indicates hyperextension of the Spine backward.

+0Z

This indicates bending the Spine to the right.

-0Y

This symbol indicates the rotation of the head toward the right.

+0X

This symbol indicates flexing the Spine foreword.

Otic ganglion.

is among those autonomic ganglia
that are not located on either side of the vertebral column or in front of it. This Parasympathetic ganglion is located in the infratemporal fossa on the medial side of Mandibular division of the Trigeminal nerve.

superior cervical ganglion, celiac ganglion, superior mesenteric ganglion, and stellate ganglion

autonomic ganglia are located either on both sides of the vertebral column or just in front of it

spinal cord, edinger-Westphal nucleus, Facial nucleus and visual cortex

Vertebral arteries and their union in front of the Pons, the Basilar artery, along with their branches supply all the following neuronal structures

Submandibular

Ganglion located
in the floor of the mouth

L4 - S3 and L4 - S2

The anterior divisions of ---------- and posterior divisions of --------- together form the largest nerve, "Sciatic", in the body.

Spinothalamic tract

Is a fasciculus that conducts pain among other sensations from the
Skin.

Propriospinal Tract/Fasciculus

The Fasciculus that communicates between adjacent spinal segments is called

Fasciculus Gracilis, Fasciculus Cuneatus, Anterior & Posterior Spinocerebellar Tracts/Fasciculi, Medial lemniscus and more

The Fasciculi that conduct proprioception from muscles and joints are several in number, and at each location have different names: such as?

Propriospinal Tract/Fasciculus

The Fasciculi that is located all around the gray matter of the Spinal Cord

Alar plate

This primordium of dorsal horn of the spinal cord is a derivative of the neural tube.

Neural Crest Cells

Sympathetic Chain Ganglia and Dorsal rootlets are derivatives of the __.

Ventral Rootlets

__ are the axons of the Lower
Motor Neurons located in lamina IX in ventral horn of the Spinal Gray Matter.

Neural Crest Cells

Ventral rootlets are derivatives of the __

Ulan

The cutaneous branches of .......... nerve conducts sensation from the medial 1/3 aspect of the hand.

Axillary

This nerve as indicated from its name, conducts sensation from the upper lateral aspect of the arm.

Radial

has three known cutaneous nerves. 1st is the Inferior Lateral Brachial Cutaneous Nerve, that conduct sensation from the lower aspect of the Arm. 2nd is the Posterior Antebrachial cutaneous Nerve that conducts sensation from the dorsal aspect of the forearm. 3rd is the Superficial Radial Nerve, that conducts sensation from the dorsal 2/3 of the Hand and the Digits.

Median

through its several cutaneous branches conducts sensation from the lateral 2/3 aspect of the palmar side of the Hand and the Digits.

Musculocutaneous

has its terminal as the Lateral Antebrachial Cutaneous Nerve that conducts sensation from the lateral half of the forearm.

Pll, All, Psoas major, Radiate ligaments

structures attached to the intervertebral discs

Tectorial membrane

extends between the body of the Axis and the occiput, and there is No IV disc neither between the Atlas and the Axis nor between the Atlas and the Occiput

Alar ligament

The ------------ligament extends between the occipital condyles and the dens of the axis.

Apical Ligament

extends between the apex of the Dens to the anterior aspect of Foramen Magnum.

Cruciate ligament

This cross-shaped ligament is made of a horizontal part that extends between the inner aspects of the Lateral Masses of the Atlas (Transverse Ligament). And a vertical part that extends between the body of the Axis and the anterior aspect of the Foramen Magnum (Inferior and Superior Longitudinal Bands).

Accessory tectorial ligament

This ligament extends between the body of the Axis and the inner aspect of the Lateral Masses of the Atlas

1) referring the IV disc to the vertebra above
2) referring the IV disc to both vertebrae, the one above and the one below

two criteria for naming the IV discs

L5

Dermatome that conduct the sensation from the Middorsal aspect of the Foot.

S2

Dermatome that extends as a narrow strip from the medial aspect of the Gluteal region to the dorsolateral aspect of the Foot.

S1

Dermatome is just lateral to the S2 Dermatome and has the
same distribution as S2.

L4

Dermatome is at the anteromedial aspect of the Leg from the Knee down to the medial 1/3 aspect of the Foot.

L3

Dermatome is a narrow strip extends from the dorsolateral
aspect of the Gluteal region to the inferomedial aspect of the Thigh.

the obliquus capitis inferior, obliquus capitis superior and the rectus capitis posterior major muscles

The boundaries of the suboccipital triangle are formed by

vertebral

The __ artery emerges from the transverse foramen of the atlas, and winds medially, deep within the suboccipital triangle

Trapezius

the Greater Occipital Nerve passes through the __ to reach the scalp for cutaneous innervation however, it does not innervate this muscle.

rectus capitis posterior minor

Of the four suboccipital muscles, the __ inserts most medially on the skull

obliquus capitis inferior muscle

The __ arises from the spinous process of C2 and inserts on the transverse process of the atlas

Annulus Fibrosis

The peripheral aspect of the __ is tightly attached to the Epiphyseal rings and periosteum of the vertebral bodies via Sharpey's fibers.

collagen

The Annulus Fibrosis besides the Cartilage is highly made of __ fibers

Sclerotome

Annulus Fibrosis part of the IV disc takes origin from the __.

70-90%

This amount of Water is a characteristic of the healthy Nucleus Pulposus.

60-70%

The Annulus Fibrosis however, contains __Water.

Subarachnoid

Since the CSF is located in the __ space besides the ventricles, therefore, in Subdural hemorrhage, the CSF is not going to have RBC's in it.

Median nerve

terminal branches innervates the muscles of the hand that used for writing?

Radial Nerve

innervates muscles of the forearm that are used to release the grabbed objects by the digits.

Ulnar Nerve

innervates the majority of (14 of total 19) muscles of the hand, however, its role in holding a pencil between the thumb and the index & middle fingers is very minimal.

Musculocutaneous Nerve

does not reach the hand at all, therefore, it has no role in writing. It does however, innervates the three muscles of the anterior compartment of the Arm that are used in flexing the arm at Shoulder joint and flexing & Supinating the Forearm at the Elbow joint.

C5 & C6

Nerves that have their origin from ............... spinal segments innervate the majority of shoulder girdle muscles.

spinal meninges, all muscles in the back, atlas, and axis

derivatives of the mesoderm

Neural crest Cells are Ectodermal origin

Spinal nerves are derivatives of __

Superficial back

The ----------- muscle group is innervated by Ventral Primary Rami.

Dorsal Primary Rami

Transversospinalis, Interspinalis, Spinotransversalis, and Sacrospinalis is innervated by:

Brain

The rostral part of neural tube will develop into the __

Neural Crest Cells

__ will give origin to the Autonomic Ganglia beside other things.

Spinal Cord

caudal part of the neural tube will become the __

Sclerotomal Cells

__ will give origin to the Vertebrae and IV discs.

Myotomal Cells

__ will give origin to the Muscles of the Spine and beyond

central

that the __ part of the neural tube will become part of the Spinal Cord

Dermatomal Cells

__ will give origin to the Dermis of the Skin.

C2-C7

The Uncovertebral joints (joints of Louchka) are formed between the uncinate processes of lower vertebra and the uncinate fossa of the upper vertebra. They are located on both sides of Cervical Vertebral bodies of __.

Aqueduct of Sylvius

The interventricular opening between the third and fourth ventricles of the brain is known as:

Foramen of Monroe

The two__ are located
between each Lateral ventricle and the 3rd ventricle.

The Aperture or Foramen of
Luschka

__ are two foramens located midway on each side of the 4th ventricle. These two foramen along with foramen of Magendie conduct CSF from the 4th ventricle to the Subarachnoid spaces and Cisternae around the Brain and Spinal Cord.

Foramen of Magendie

This single foramen is located at the
caudal end of the 4th ventricle, at the mid line underneath the Cerebellum.
Along with above two foramen of Luschka, conducts CSF from the 4th ventricle to the Subarachnoid spaces and Cisternae around the Brain and Spinal Cord.

L1 disc as the conus medullaris

The most common site of spinal cord termination is at:

Lateral horn of upper thoracic and medulla oblongata

It is very well known that the Heart is regulated by the Autonomic Nervous System. The preganglionic sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons that regulate the cardiac muscles are respectively located in:

vertebral artery

Supplies the spinal cord along with vital neuronal elements of the CNS.

suboccipital

In the __ region, Vertebral artery
Is located between the occiput and dorsal arch of the atlas.

C7

Vertebral artery travels through all transverse foramina of the cervical vertebrae except __.

Atlanto-occipital

vertebral artery in the suboccipital region winds behind the __ joint, however it would then pass through the Atlanto-occipital membrane to get into the cranial cavity but Not through the Atlanto-axial membrane.

Neuroectoderm, neural plate, neural groove and folds, neural tube and neural crest.

correct order of neurulation during the embryonic period

Lumbar Plexus

Some of the terminal nerves of __ innervate the muscles of the Anterior & medial thigh compartments. And some others are cutaneous for the skin of the Thigh (lateral to medial aspect of it), and the skin of the anteromedial aspect of the Leg as well as the dorsomedial aspect of the Foot.

Spina bifida with meningomyelocele

In this type of spina bifida you would find a dorsally protruded sac with elements of the spinal cord are incorporated in it.

Spina bifida with meningocele

dorsally protruded cyst-like sac (meningocele), however, neuronal elements are not incorporated in the wall of the sac.

Spina bifida with myeloschisis

In this case of Vertebral and CNS congenital abnormality, the neural tube for some reasons fails to fuse and remains open to the environment at the defected vertebral site.

Spina bifida occulta

In this type of abnormality, only the posterior aspect of the neural arch fails to fuse, with usually no neurologic symptoms.

cystica

The term aper'ta is AKA for __.

X, Z

These two axes of the Cartesian coordinate system
indicate the horizontal plane.

X, Y

These two axes of the Cartesian coordinate system indicate the Frontal plane.

Y, Z

These two axes of the Cartesian coordinate system indicate the Sagittal plane.

great auricular, subcostal, genitofemoral, tibial

following nerves contain a mix of both somatic and autonomic nerve fiber components

Greater splanchnic nerve

pure Autonomic nerves

S1-S2

The cord level are involved with ankle jerk reflex.

L2, L3, L4

The __segments are involved in the Knee Jerk Reflex

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