Anatomy and Physiology 2 Final Exam Study Guide--Mulitple Choice

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The % of RBC in a blood sample is called the

Hematocrit

The most abundant type of plasma protein is

albumin

A blood clot that breaks loose and travels in the blood flow is called an

embolus

When hemoglobin molecules are decomposed a greenish pigment called _____ is formed

biliverdin

The test in which the % of various types of leukocytes in a blood sample is determined is the ___ WBC cell

differential

Platelets tend to stick to the _____ in connective tissue

collagen

Normally the most common type of leukocyte in a blood sample is the ____

neutrophil

_____ is a powerful anticoagulant relased by the basophils and mast cells

heparin

The hormone released from the kidneys that promotes the production of RBC is____

erythropoietin

The process by which bleeding is stopped is___

hemostasis

The foreign substances that trigger immune responses are called____

antigens

The condition caused by an accumulation of tissue fluid in the interstitial spaces is____

edema

A substance that can stimulate a primary immune response but is unable to produce the symptoms of a disease is a _____

vaccine

Excessive tissue fluid is returned to venous circulation by means of____

lymph vessels

The most common type of immunoglobulin is___

IgG

A newborn infant may have some defense against disgestive and respiratory distubances because of IgA obtained from its mother's____

milk

The region of lymph node through which blood vessels pass is____

hilum

The basic event in the formation of a blood clot is the change of____

fibrinogen to fibrin

Plasma protein properly described?

Beta globulins transport lipids and fat-soluble vitamins

Lymph nodes occur in groups throughout the body except in the_____

CNS

Cell mediated immunity (aka cellular immune response) is a process whereby__________

T-cells attach themselves directly to antigens and destroy them

Injections of gamma globulin are sometimes given to provide___

artificially acquired passive immunity

Which of the following is not needed for the formation of a blood clot?

Albumin

Blood platelets___

All; release serotonin, lack nuclei, number from 130 k to 360 k per mm2 of blood

Following the primary immune response, the cells that give rise to memory cells are

B-cells only

The release of tissue thromboplastin initiates___

the extrinisic clotting mechanism

The most active phagocytic cells found in circulating blood are____

neutrophils and monocytes

Which of the following is an agranulocyte?

a monocyte (or lymphocyte)

Hemophilia

All; lack of clotting factor, appears most often in males, can result in large intramusculature meatomas, blood in the urine, and bleeding into joints

Inheritance is due to recessive gene located on x chromosome

x-linked

A gene that is not expressed in the heterozygous condition is

recessive

Incomplete dominance is defined as

gene pairs occurring in two forms that are expressed differently and neither is dominant to the other

In order for a recessive trait to be expressed, a person must

inherit 2 recessive genes for a trait

Which of the following is true in regard to the determination of the gender of a baby?

The sex chromosome in the sperm determines the gender of the baby

The presence of the y chromosone in a cell promotes the synthesis of the ____ protein, which results in_____

transcription factor (SRY gene); formation of testes

If an egg cell without an x chromosome is fertilized by an x-bearing sperm cell, this will result in

Turner's Syndrome

Tissue fluid is___ and lymph is____

forced out of blood plasma and generally lacking in proteins; absorbed into lymph capillaries and rich in proteins and foreign particles

The spleen is much like a lymph node except that the spleen

filters blood

The form of anemia that is most likely to be caused by overexposure to ionizing radiation is

aplastic anemia

The cells called cytotoxic T cells destroy

cancer and virus containing cells

The antibodies involved in allergic reactions

belong to the immunoglobulin E group (IgE)

When the alleles of a gene pair are different they are said to be

heterozygous

An individual who is homozygous is dominant for a trait that can be symbolized as

AA

Plasma cells function to

produced antibody molecules

What is the difference between serum and plasma?

plasma contains fibrinogen; serum does not

Erythroblastsosis fetalis is most likely to become a problem in Rh-negative mothers as a

second Rh-positive fetus develops

Which of the following formed elements releases serotonin?

Platelets

Cytotoxic T cells destroy their target cells by releasing a substance that affects

cell membranes

The spleen

all; is the largest lymphatic organ, contains numerous phagocytic cells, contains nodules similar to lymphatic nodules

Which of the following would not be possible blood type for a baby of a mother with type ab and father with type b blood?

type O

The primary functions of lymph include

both returning proteins to the bloodstream and transporting foreign particles to the lymph nodes

Genes that cause abnormal development and the death of an individual are called

lethal genes

A lymphatic obstruction can lead to edema by

proteins accumluating and increasing the osmotic pressure of the tissue fluid

T lymphocytes are responsible for

cell-mediated immunity

If the parent genotypes are Aa and Aa the offspring are expected to be

1/4 (25%) AA, 1/2 (50%) Aa, 1/4 (25%) aa

Prolonged use of certain drugs such as aspirin and ibuprofen may be associated with a tendency to bleed excessively because these drugs inhibit the activity of

platelets

The lymph nodes of the axillary region receive lymph mainly from the

arm and mammary gland

As a consequence of starvation or a protein deficient diet, the blood protein concentration

decreases and water accumulates in tissue spaces

An antigen is___ whereas an antibody is____

a foreign substance such as a protein or polysaccharide to which lymphocytes respond; a globular protein that reacts with an antigen to eliminate them

When the allelles of a gene pair are identical they are said to be

homozygous

Nondisjunction can result in chromosome disorders due to the fact that

some cells have too many chromosome and others have too few

Platelets are best described as

cytoplasmic fragments of cells

Biliverdin and bilirubin are pigments that result from a breakdown of RBC's; biliverdin is ____ in color and bilirubin is ____ in color

greenish; orange

When is the chromosome number reduced by one-half during gametogenesis?

during the first meitoic division

A primary function of lymphocytes is to

act against foreign substances

Of the following which are most active as phagocytes?

neutrophils

The origin of the 46 chromosomes in a human zygote is

half from sperm cell and half from egg cell

Oxyhemoglobin is ___ in color whereas deoxyhemoglobin is ____ in color

bright red; bluish

Which of the following is the same for mature human spermatozoa and ova

the number of chromosomes in the cell

In an autoimmune disease the immune response is directed toward

self-antigens

Which of the following are correct concerning granulocytes?

all; larger than RBC, contain granules in the cytoplasm, formed in the red bone marrow

Autosomes number

22 pairs

Sickle cell anemia is caused by

an abnormal form of hemoglobin

Two major factors that influence the development of individual characteristics are

heredity and environment

X-linked genes are always expressed more frequently in males than in females due to the fact that

there is no allele on y chromosomes

If the parent genotypes of AA and aa, the offspring are expected to be

all Aa

The type of resistance that is acquired as a result of developing the disease is

naturally acquired active immunity

The formation of lymph increases as a result of

increasing osmotic pressure in tissue fluid

If lymphatic tissue is removed from an axillary region, the arm on that side is likely to

become edematous

Genotype is defined as

combination of genes in a zygote

Newborns are sometimes exposed to fluorescent lights as treatment for

physiologic jaundice

To avoid the AIDs infection, healthcare workers should

avoid contact with patient's body fluids

Homologous pairs of chromosomes are

chromosomes from the mother and father that contain similar genetic information

Interferon is a group of hormone-like peptides produced by cells in response to the presence of

viruses

The percentage of solids in a sample of human blood is normally

45%

The final step in the formation of a blood clot is

that thrombin converts fibrinogen to fibrin

A vaccine produces its effects by

stimulating a primary immune response

Which of the following is not a tissue response associated with inflammation?

Nearby blood vessels become constricted

Leukocytosis is an increase in WBC above 10k per mm2 of blood and can occur

all; during emotional disturbances, following vigorous activity, during acute infections

Which is an example of a specific body defense mechansim?

immunity

An example of homozygous gene pair is

aa

A positive tuberculin skin test indicates that the person

has been exposed to the mycobacteria that causes TB

The functions of the lymphatic system do not include

transporting hormones to interstitial smooth muscle

Heparin prevents the clotting of blood by

inhibiting the formation of prothrombin activator and the action of thrombin on fribrinogen

The cells that are primarily responsible for immunity are

lymphocytes and macrophages

Blood vessel spasms following an injury are stimulated by

serotonin released from platelets

The form of anemia that is caused by a lack of dietary iron is called

pernicious anemia

Vitamin B12 is poorly absorbed in the absence of

intrinsic factor

The normal WBC is

5K - 10K

Two substances useful for dissolving blood clots are

urokinase and streptokinase

The biconcave cells in blood that lack nuclei when they are mature are the

RBC's

Which of the following is the correct sequence for the development of RBC's?

Hemocytoblast, erythroblast, erythrocyte

The condition called thrombocytopenia is due to a deficiency of

platelets

The condition called cyanosis is caused by an increased blood concentration of

deoxyhemoglobin

Patients with leukemia have a tendency to bleed because they have a deficiency of

platelets

As a platelet plug forms, platelets relase the vasoconstriciting substance called

serotonin

Agglutinogent of the various blood types are examples of

antigens

Erythroblastosis fetalis can be prevented by treating

Rh-negative mothers with anti-Rh agglutinin

Type AB blood contains

agglutinogen A and B

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