Psychopharmacology Questions

Created by Chrisbap 

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what would happen as a result to a lesion in the medial hypothalamus?

aggression, hyperphagia (overeating, leading to obesity)

4 stages of neural development

Proliferation, Migration, Differentiation, Myelination

Korsakoffs produces__________. The damage is in the________________.

retrograde and anterograde amnesia, apathy, confabulation
thalamus

If you mix ________with alchohol, it could be fatal.

anxiolytics (benzo's) diazapaAM, alprazofAM, chlordiazepoxide

Norepinephrine mediates

fight or flight (sympathetic)

Dopamine is responsible for

voluntary movement and mood

Geschwind Galaburda hypothesis

high levels of testosterone predispose individual to dyslexia, childhood allergies, stuttering, L handedness, good R hemisphere (spatial abilities, creative, face recognition, visual imagery)

_________ is used to tx alcohol abuse

Naltrexone

Adv. of SSRI over tri's

quicker onset, less likely to produce cognitive and anticholinergic side effects

Lesions in the amygdala are associated with

Kluver-Bucy Syndrome (reduced fear and aggression, altered dietary habits, psychic blindness-can't recognize the significance objects or situations)

Where to absence seizures originate? another name for absence?

thalmus/petit mal

temporal lobe functions

receptive language, memory, emotion

meds for nicotine dependence and smoking cessation

buproprion, varenicline, nicotine replacement interventions

damage to right postcentral gyrus can result in
Where is the postcentral gyrus?

numbness in the left hand and contralteral neglect, which includes the left visual field

parietal lobe

What is the function of the cingulate gyrus?

acts as a satisfaction center and mediates the feelings of satisfaction that follow eating and sex

EMG Biofeedback is useful in treating _______headaches. Thermal biofeedback is useful for__________headaches.

tension, migraine

Symptoms of morphine withdrawal

Flu-like symptoms
vomit, nausea, diarrhea, cramping, running nose and eyes, insomnia

Damage to the right frontal lobe causes

disinhibition
impulsiveness
happy indifference
jocularity (habitually jolly)

Damage the left frontal lobe causes

reduced speech
depression
apathy

The right hemisphere mediates _______ emotions and damage can cause_________.

indifference, apathy, undue cheerfulness

Akathisia-define
side effect of _____.

antipsychotics
inability to sit sit still, constant pacing, restlessness
Parkinsons

dysarthria-define
side effect of

antipsychotics
imperfect articulation of speech (PROBLEMS WITH THE MUSCLES THAT MAKE YOU TALK, DIFFICULT TO PRODUCE WORDS)

akinesia-define
side effect of
symptom of

complete or almost complete loss of movement
antipsychotics

transcortical aphasia is distinguished from the other types of aphasia because

you can repeat words, phrases, or sentences

bilateral destruction of the hippo, amygdala, and medial temporal lobes produces what?

severe, permanent anterograde amnesia

name the universal emotions

anger, happy, jealous, surprise, fear, disgust

probability of a parent with Huntington's passing the disorder to an offspring is ________% Why??

50%
Because it is a dominant, autosomal disorder

brain areas associated with declarative memory

temporal lobe and hippocampus

also diencephalon, peripheral cortex, amygdala, cortex

using similar phonemes instead of the specific words required

paraphasias

functions of the left hemisphere

logic, language, analytical thinking, positive emotions

functions of the right hemisphere

visual-spatial, creativity, recognizing faces, negative emotions

asomatognosia

can't recognize parts of own body

ataxia

slurred speech, severe tremors, loss of balance (lack of coordination of muscle movements)

anosognosia

inability to recognize one's own impairment

hypersthesia

abnormal sensitivity to sensation

A stroke here would limit basic primal drives or may make patients lose their natural inhibitions

limbic system--responsible for primal urges and emotions that ensure self-preservation such as hunger, rage, and sexual desire

Parkinsons is characterized by

tremor, rigidity, and akinesia (slowness of movement)

basal ganglia

code and relay info associated with the control of voluntary movement and play a role in motor learning, motoric expressions of emotions, and sensorimotor functioning

symptoms of Huntingtons

chorea (irregular, rapid, uncontrolled, involuntary, excessive movement)
dementia (50%)
athetosis (condition in which there is a constant succession of slow, writhing, involuntary movements of flexion, extension, pronation, and supination of the fingers)

stages of Huntingtons

affective
motor
cognitive

Huntingtons is caused by

a degeneration of neurons in the CAUDATE NUCLEUS of the basal ganglia

Neurotransmitters involved with Huntingtons

ACH
Gaba
dopamine

Parkinsons is caused by

not enough dopamine, so you increase dopamine; also excessive ACH, you could block the effects of ACH (Increase dopamine, reduce ACH)

brain parts compromised in Parkinsons

substantia niagra/basal ganglia

hypothalamus

involved in hunger and thirst, sex, sleep, body temperature, movement, emotional reactions
regulates the body's homeostasis (temp., fluid and electrolyte balance, weight, blood pressure)
translates emotions into physical response such as racing heart and shallow breathing
contains the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) which controls the body's circadian rhythms (sleep/wake cycle)

Function of GABA

inhibitory role
associated with eating, sleep, anxiety, and seizure disorders
(Low-anxiety, Parkinson's)
(Deficits-Huntington's Chorea)

Function of glutamate

excitatory, assoc with learning, memory, long term potentiation

Pseudodepression and Pseudopsychopathy
damage where?
define

damage to the frontal lobe
Pseudo-depression-apathy, lack of drive, little verbal output, inability to plan and focus attention
Pseudo-psychopathy-sexual disinhibition, coarse language, peculiar and facetious sense of humor, inappropriate social behavior, lack of concern for others

Involved in the control of endocrine and regulates circadian rhythm (SCN)

hypothalamus

_______is used for OCD (best tx)

clomipramine

tri antidepressant assoc with:
tx of ADHD
enuresis
decreasing the desire to binge and purge

imipramine

pain meds

amitripyline

patch for depression

seiegiline

don't mix a SSRI or tricyclic with a

MAOI

what class of antidepressants are lethal in overdose?

the tricyclics are cardiotoxic

can't mix an MAOI with what foods?

foods with tyramine beer, wine, aged cheese, soy, some nuts, avacado, tomato, packaged soup

meds for headaches

amitripyline

#1 side effect of fluextine

sex dysfunction

EMG

electromyogram
measures impulses in the muscles and indicated degree of relaxation/tension (for stress, headaches, chronic pain, muscle stiffness, healing muscles, incontinence, urinary urgency)

EEG

electroencephalogram
info on brainwave activity and patterns
(for adhd, depression, epilepsy, reduce impulsivity, promote recovery, head injury, and strokes)

another name for antipsychotics

NEUROLEPTICS
pheno

associated with anxiety, mood, eating, sleep, arousal, temperature regulation, aggression, modulation of pain and headaches

serotonin

regulates voluntary movement, learning, memory, mediates sexual behavior, REM sleep, and the sleep-wake cycle

AcH

paresthesia

sensation of tingling, prickling
"feelings of pins and needles" or a limb "falling asleep"

Prefrontal is responsible for what types of memory

short term
episodic
prospective memory
working memory

The midbrain contains the RAS. What is the RAS responsible for?

plays a role in sleep and wakefulness
sensation of pain and touch
respiration
control of reflexes

Glutamate is a neurotransmitter responsible for

cognitive abililites(learning, memory) which are correlated with alchol abuse

alexia

reading disability (word blindness) caused by an acqured brain lesion

constructional apraxia

can't draw pictures
can't copy simple figues
can't arrange blocks in a pattern

ideomotor apraxia

cannot carry out a command to perform a particular movement (e.g., blow out a candle)

damage to the orbiofronal cortex results in
The orbitifrontal is part of the

altered emotions
prefrontal cortex (the prefrontal cortex is associated with emotions!)

frontal lobe functions

emotion
memory
language
higher cognitive processes (executive functioning)

parietal lobe functions

somatosensory cortex (mediates pain, pressure, temperature, taste, proprioception) spatial relationships, ability to perform complex purposeful movement

occipital lobe function

visual perception and sensations

temproal lobe function

auditory sensation and perception (receptive)

synesthesia

cross modal perception (hear colors or taste shapes)

two disorders associated with the malfunctioning of the pancreas

diabetes mellitus (pancreas fails to secret insulin)
hypoglycemia (pancreas over secretes insulin)

dysprosody

speech disorder affecting the rhythm of speech and the pronunciation of words

anomia

aphasia characterized by impaired ability to recall words or names (problem with word finding)

algoia

inability to speak becasue of mental deficiency, mental confusion, or aphasia

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