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acetabulum

hip socket; the large circular cavity in each side of the pelvis that articulates with the head of the femur to form the hip joint

allogenic

originating with another

ankles

form the joint between the lower leg and the foot

ankylosing spondylitis

a form of rheumatoid arthritis that primarily causes inflammation of the joints between the vertebrae

ankylosis

the loss, or absence, of mobility in a joint due to disease, injury, or a surgical procedure

arthritis

an inflammatory condition of one or more joints

arthrodesis

the surgical fusion (joining together) of two bones to stiffen a joint, such as an ankle, elbow, or shoulder

arthrolysis

the surgical loosening of an ankylosed joint

arthroplasty

the surgical placement of an artificial joint

arthrosclerosis

a stiffness of the joints, especially in the elderly

arthroscopic surgery

a minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of the interior of a joint

arthroscopy

the visual examination of the internal structure of a joint

articular cartilage

covers the surfaces of bones where they come together to form joints

auditory ossicles

the six tiny bones of the middle ear

autologous

originating within an individual

axial skeleton

protects the major organs of the nervous, respiratory, and circulatory systems; consists of 80 bones including those of the skull, the ribs, sternum, and thoracic vertebrae of the thoracic cavity, and the other vertebrae of the spinal column

bone density testing

used to determine losses or changes in bone density

bone marrow biopsy

a diagnostic test that may be necessary after abnormal types or numbers of red or white blood cells are found in a complete blood count test

bone marrow transplant

used to treat certain types of cancers, such as leukemia and lymphomas, that affect bone marrow

bone-conserving hip resurfacing

function is restored to the hip by placing a metal cap over the head of the femur to allow it to move smoothly over a metal lining in the acetabulum

bursa

a fibrous sac that acts as a cushion to ease movement in areas that are subject to friction

bursectomy

the surgical removal of a bursa

bursitis

an inflammation of a bursa

calcaneus

the largest of the tarsal bones (heel bone)

callus

forms as a bulging deposit around the area of the break as a bone heals

carpals

the 8 bones that form the wrist

cartilage

the smooth, rubbery, blue-white connective tissue that acts as a shock absorber between bones

cartilaginous joints

allow only slight movement and consist of bones connected entirely by cartilage

cervical vertebrae

the first set of seven vertebrae that form the neck; also known as C1 through C7

chiropractor

holds a Doctor of Chiropractic degree and specializes in the manipulative treatment of disorders originating from misalignment of the spine

chondroma

a slow-growing benign tumor derived from cartilage cells

chondromalacia

the abnormal softening of cartilage

chondroplasty

the surgical repair of damaged cartilage

clavicle

the collar bone, a slender bone that connects the manubrium of the sternum to the scapula

closed fracture

one in which the bone is broken, but there is no open wound in the skin

closed reduction

the attempted realignment of the bone involved in a fracture or joint dislocation

coccyx

forms the end of the spine and is actually made up of four small vertebrae that are fused together (tailbone)

Colles' fracture

occurs at the lower end of the radius when a person tries to stop a fall by landing on his or her hands

comminuted fracture

one in which the bone is splintered or crushed

compact bone

the dense, hard, and very strong bone that forms the protective outer layer of bones

compression fracture

occurs when the bone is pressed together (compressed) on itself

costochondritis

an inflammation of the cartilage that connects a rib to the sternum

craniectomy

the surgical removal of a portion of the skull

cranioplasty

the surgical repair of the skull

craniostenosis

a malformation of the skull due to the premature closure of the cranial sutures

craniotomy

a surgical incision or opening into the skull

cranium

the portion of the skull that encloses the brain

crepitation

the grating sound heard when the ends of a broken bone move together

cruciate ligaments

make possible the movements of the knee

diaphysis

the shaft of a long bone

dislocation

the total displacement of a bone from its joint

dual x-ray absorptiometry

a low-exposure radiographic measurement of the spine and hips to measure bone density

endosteum

the tissue that line the medullary cavity

epiphysis

the wide end of a long bone

ethmoid bone

forms part of the posterior portion of the nose, the orbit, and the floor of the cranium

external auditory meatus

the opening of the exernal auditory canal of the outer ear

external fixation

a fracture treatment procedure in which pins are placed through the soft tissues and bone so that an external applicance can be used to hold the pieces of bone firmly in place during healing

fat embolus

can form when a long bone is fractured and fat cells from yellow bone marrow are released into the blood

femur

the upper leg bone (largest bone in the body)

fibrous dysplasia

a bone disorder of unknown cause that destroys normal bone structure and replaces it with fibrous tissue

fibrous joints

consists of inflexible layers of dense connective tissue, holds the bones tightly together

fibula

the smaller of the two bones of the lower leg

fontanelles

soft spots normally present on the skull of a newborn

foramen

an opening in a bone through which blood vessels, nerves, and ligaments pass

fracture

a broken bone

frontal bone

forms the forehead

gouty arthritis

a type of arthritis characterized by deposits of uric acid in the joints

greenstick fracture

one in which the bone is bent and only partially broken

hallux valgus

an abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe (bunion)

hemarthrosis

blood within a joint

hemopoietic

pertaining to the formation of blood cells

herniated disk

the breaking apart of an intervertebral disk that results in pressure on spinal nerve roots

humerus

the bone of the upper arm

ilium

the broad blade-shaped bone that forms the back and sides of the pubic bone

immobilization

the act of holding, suturing, or fastening the bone in a fixed position with strapping or a cast

interior conchae

the thin, scroll-like bones that form part of the interior of the nose

internal fixation

a fracture treatment in which a plate or pins are placed directly into the bone to hold the broken pieces in place

intervertebral disks

made of cartilage, separate and cushion the vertebrae from each other

ischium

forms the lower posterior portion of the pubic bone and bears the weight of the body when sitting

joints

the place of union between two or more bones

juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

an autoimmune disorder that affects children aged 16 years or less with symptoms that include stiffness, pain, joint swelling, skin rash, fever, slowed growth, and fatigue

knees

the complex joints that make possible movement between the upper and lower leg

kyphosis

an abnormal increase in the outward curvature of the thoracic spine as viewed from the side (humpback)

lacrimal bones

make up part of the orbit at the inner angle of the eye

laminectomy

the surgical removal of a lamina, or posterior portion, of a vertebra

ligaments

bands of fibrous tissue that form joints by connecting one bone to another bone, or joining a bone to cartilage

lordosis

an abnormal increase in the forward curvature of the lumbar spine (swayback)

lumbago

pain of the lumbar region of the spine

lumbar vertebrae

make up the third set of five vertebrae and form the inward curve of the lower spine; also known as L1 through L5

magnetic resonance imaging

MRI, used to image soft tissue structures such as the interior of complex joints

malleolus

the rounded bony protuberance on each side of the ankle

mandible

the jawbone, the only movable bone of the skull, attached to the skull at the TMJ

manubrium

the bony structure that forms the upper portion of the sternum

maxillary bones

form most of the upper jaw

medullary cavity

located in the shaft of a long bone and is surrounded by compact bone

meniscus

the curved fibrous cartilage found in some joints

metacarpals

the 5 bones that form the palms of the hand

metatarsals

form the part of the foot to which the toes are attached

myeloma

a type of cancer that occurs in blood-making cells found in the red bone marrow

nasal bones

two bones that form the upper part of the bridge of the nose

oblique fracture

occurs at an angle across the bone

occipital bone

forms the posterior floor and walls of the cranium

olecranon process

a large projection on the upper end of the ulna (funny bone)

open fracture

one in which the bone is broken and there is an open wound in the skin

orthopedic surgeon

a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders involving the bones, joints, and muscles

orthotic

a mechanical applicance, such as a leg brace or splint, that is specially designed to control, correct, or compensate for impaired limb function

ostealgia

pain in a bone

ostectomy

the surgical removal of bone

osteitis

an inflammation of bone

osteoarthritis

most commonly associated with aging (wear-and-tear arthritis)

osteochondroma

a benign bony projection covered with cartilage

osteoclasis

the surgical fracture of a bone to correct a deformity

osteomalacia

abnormal softening of bones in adults

osteomyelitis

an inflammation of the bone marrow and adjacent bone

osteonecrosis

the death of bone tissue due to a lack of sufficient blood supply

osteopath

holds a Doctor of Osteopathy degree and uses traditional forms of medical treatment in addition to specializing in treating health problems by spinal manipulation

osteopenia

thinner than average bone density in a young person

osteoplasty

the surgical repair of a bone or bones

osteoporosis

a marked loss of bone density and an increase in bone porosity that is frequently associated with aging

osteoporotic hip fracture

usually caused by a weakening of the bones due to osteoporosis and can occur either spontaneously or as the result of a fall

osteorrhaphy

the surgical suturing, or wiring together, of bones

osteotomy

a surgical incision or sectioning of a bone

Paget's disease

a bone disease of unknown cause characterized by the excessive breakdown of bone tissue, followed by abnormal bone formation

palatine bones

form part of the hard palate of the mouth and the floor of the nose

parietal bones

form most of the roof and upper sides of the cranium

partial knee replacement

a procedure in which only part of the knee is replaced

patella

the bony anterior portion of the knee (kneecap)

pathologic fracture

occurs when a weakened bone breaks under normal strain

pectoral girdle

formed by the shoulders, which support the arms and hands

pelvic girdle

protects internal organs and supports the lower extremeties; a cup-shaped ring of bone at the lower end of the trunk that consists of the ilium, ischium, and pubis

percutaneous diskectomy

performed to treat a herniated intervertebral disk

percutaneous vertebroplasty

performed to treat osteoporosis-related compression fractures

periosteotomy

an incision through the periosteum to the bone

periosteum

the tough, fibrous tissue that forms the outermost covering of bone

periostitis

an inflammation of the periosteum

phalanges

the 14 bones of the fingers; the bones of the toes

podiatrist

holds a Doctor of Podiatry or Doctor of Podiatric Medicine degree and specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the foot

popliteal

referring to the posterior space behind the knee where the ligaments, vessels, and muscles related to this joint are located

primary bone cancer

a relatively rare malignant tumor that originates in a bone

process

a normal projection on the surface of a bone that serves as an attachment for muscles and tendons

prosthesis

a substitute for a diseased or missing body part, such as a leg that has been amputated

pubic symphysis

the cartilaginous joint known that allows some movement to facilitate childbirth

pubis

forms the anterior portion of the pubic bone, located just below the urinary bladder

radiograph

x-ray

radius

the smaller and shorter bone in the forearm; runs up the thumb side of the forearm

red bone marrow

located within the spongy bone, is hemopoietic tissue that manufactures red blood cells, hemoglobin, white blood cells, and thrombocytes

revision surgery

the replacement of a worn or failed implant

rheumatoid arthritis

a chronic autoimmune disorder in which the joints and some organs of other body systems are attacked

ribs

12 pairs, attach posteriorly to the thoracic vertebrae

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