India Terms

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Karnatic Music

Southern Region, reference Tyagaraja a saint and musician. Unlike Tansen, Tygara refused government position. Kriti is a type of their music, vocals are important.

Hindustani Music

Northern Region, Improv.. Gharanas derive their legitimacy from Tansen. "art music".

Tansen

Hindustani founder. court musician who needed to illustrate his professionalism in order to escape charges of emotive and sensual musical

Tyagaraja

A saint and Musician. for Karnatic musicians, not associated with any court, not bound by anything other than his bhakti or devotion to Rama. As such he didn't need to protect his musical creations but rather shared them freely.

Gharana

A school of professional musicians who originally traced their heritage to a family tradition

Raga

A scale with musical characters such as pitch, ascending, descending

Svara

pitches

Vakra

crooked ragas, starting in 1 place and moving

Gamaka

Ornamenttion that notes may carry

Sargam

a organization system helping people to learn rags

Svarkalapana

Improvised singing in carnatic

Eduppu. Mukhra

distinctive phrases that call attention to the character of the raga

Tihai

A pre composed phrase said 3 times to add emphasis

Laya

tempo

Drut

Fast Tempo

Vilambit

Slow Tempo

Tala

Meterical system of rythm used in both karantic and hindustani music

Jati

metrical cycles with beats

Bol

Hindustani rythmic syllable

Solkattu/ Konnakol

vocal rhythmic system to help people remember, combining simple combos. comprised of monosyllabic words

Bhajan

A Carnatic devotional Song

Kriti

The major Carnatic music (South). In 3 parts pallavi, anupallavi, caranam.

Alapanam

An improv performed before the Kriti, demonstrates abilities. Also introduces the raga

Pallavi

Opening of the ragam, chorus

Anupallavi

the extension of the chorus, exploring other octives...

Caranam

is an off-shoot of the anupallavi and is often very virtuosic in terms of the improvisatory gestures that get incorporated into its performance.

alap

Raga improvisation in free rythm. Explores the range of the raga

gat

a precomposed piece in a raga, often virtuosic and fast

dhrupad and khyal

two most respected forms of
vocal performance

ghazal

more modern vocal music

Jor

Section of Hindustani instrumental performance that follows alap and introduces pulse

jhala

The concluding section of instrumental improv following Jor in Hindustani music with lively and fast movements

Vina

Karntic 4 string instrument

Mridangam

Karnatic Double Headed Drum

Bansuri

Flute used in Hindustani and Karnatic Music

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