In which of the following responses are T-cells involved?
Inflammation, Phagocytosis, Antibody mediated response. (all the above)
Increased concentration of ______ antibody indicate a parasitic infection
Serum Sickness can be caused by ______?
Bee venom, infection of antibiotics, injection of serum. (all the above)
antibodies (imuniglobulin) are _____ globulin proteins on the surface of B cells that react specifically with antigen.
Mechanisms for cell damage in type II hypersensitivity?
Classical complement cascade, natural killer cells, opsonization. (all of the above)
Incompatible blood transfusion could induce a hemolytic reaction that results in intravascular lysis of the RBC's and release of ______ from lysed cells?
A fetus can produce immunoglobulins of which of the following classes?
Protein based antigens require help of special class of _____ to activate B cells
T Cells (T helper cells)
Which of the following componenets of complement is called anaphyatoxin?
C3a and C5a
C1 component of complement has a receptor for which of the following fragments of the immunoglobulin?
Which of the following components of the complement primary undergoes activation in the alternative complement pathway?
Which of the following components of complement is the most important component that function as opsonin?
T4 (helper) cells are able to recognize foreign antigens in combination with which of the following classes of the Major Histocompatibility Complex?
Class II molecules
B cells could be activated by an unprocessed antigen?
False (check on this one.)
Which of the following immunoglobulins is not able to activate the complement system by classic pathway?
In primary responses the antibodies of which of the following classes of immunoglobulins are detected first?
Both chains of antibody (H and L) are held together by?
______ in both chain of antibody are responsible for antigen binding
The human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is composed of a cluster of genes located _______
The MHC is also known as?
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)
Class II codes for molecules?
A fetus is not able to produce IgG class immunoglobulins?
Which of the following is antigen presenting cell?
An antigen that occurs in various tissues of different species is referred to as?
Deficiency in the early lectin and classical pathway components (C1,C2,C4) cause?
Type III hypersensitivity (immune complex disease) & Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). (B and C)
J chain is a glycopeptide chain associated with which of the following immunoglobulins?
IgA & IgM (A and C)
Properties of haptons include?
Reactivity but no immunogenicity
In primary response (during early state) most of the antibodies are the _____ type which is the first class antibody to be secreted by naive plasma cells, later the class of antibody is switched to _____
IgA --> IgD
Fab of antibody can clear the infection by?
Neutralize toxin & Opsonize microbe (A and B)
Auto antigen affect what?
Which molecule is not stable?
At which site does the antigen bind?
Trigger for memory B cells?
Function of secondary response?
What is the classic pathway?
C1 ----> C2, C4 -----> C3 -----> C5 to C9
Possible test question answer
Mechanism for cell damage in type II hypersensitivity?
Classical complement cascade, Natural Killer cells, Opsonization. (all of the above)
The lack of immune response for self-antigens in the tissue is caused by:
Deletion of self reactive cells & Inactivating the cell (anergy). (A and B)
This tolerance is unresonsive to self-antigens (all the endogenous antigens)
Function of T suppressor cells is important in suppression? (lol)
Antibodies against antibodies called?
In Graves' disease, antibodies blood, the TSH (Thyroid stimulating hormone) receptors on the thyroid gland. (? doesn't make sense to me)
Which of the following autoimune dieases is associated with butterfly rash on the face?
Systemic lupus (SLE, Red wolf)
Which of the following factors is/are involved in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus autoimmune diease?
Infection & HLA gene. (A and B)
Which of the following biochemical/s is/are going tobe reduced in Hashimoto's thyroiditis?
Which of the following is called rheumatoid factor?
IgM-antibody against F-c portion of a patient's own IgG
Autoantibodies in double strained DNA are typical findings in which of the following disorders?
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Multiple sclerosis is associated with which of the following types of hypersensitivity reaction?
IV and III
The antibodies in warm agglutinin type immune hemolytic anemia consist of which of the following classes of immunoglobulins?
Allografts of lymphoid tissue are particularly immunogenic because of the high content of?
MHC class II expressing cells.
An example of a type III immune complex disease is?
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), (SLE), and sleroderma.. (one selection, not all of the above)
The localized reactions to injected antigens in the same body site such as booster shots are called?
A positive tuberculin skin test is an example of?
A delayed type allergy.
Contact dermatitis is caused by?
Chemical absorbed by the skin.
A graft transplanted between individuals who are members of different species?
Factors that affect the immune system and decrease the immune functions are as follows:
Chronic disease & Emotional Stress (A and C)
Patient with severe immunodeficiency disease in both T-cells and B-cells compartment accept a allogenic bone marrow graft (gotta love her grammar)
Natural antibodies have the following characteristics?
Low affinity, Low specificity, Harmless, Have some rule for clearing infection. (All of the above)
In natural tolerance 95% of apoptosis (PCD) of T cells found in:
Central Tolerance is witin?
Matching: See Back
1. Post Streptococal (Glomerulonephritis) = Immune complex disease (B)
2. Arthus reaction = Type III hypersensitivity (local) (C)
3. Serum Sickness = Type III hypersensitivity (systemic) (A)
4. Contact Hypersensitivity = Type IV (D)
T suppressor cells prevent ____ to make antibodies, and also precvent ____ from maturing into T-cytotoxic cells.
B cells, T cells
Preexisting infection can have positive or negative effects on immune response.
This is an induced tolerance in which an animal will fail to respond to non-self antigens (all exogenous antigens) from outside the body that would normally be immunologic.
Which of the following factors are involved in autoimmune disease?
Infection, Hormonal, Genetic, (all of the above)
These monkey antigens (Rh factor) are presented in ____ of humans and absent in the other ____
Transfusion reaction may cause?
Destruction of the tranfused cells by hemolysis opsonization, Increased phagocytosis (all of the above)
Which type of hypersensitivity is mediated by IgE?
Type III hypersensitivity is best described by which of the following statements?
It requires immune complex formation
All of the following are true about erythroblastosis fetalis EXCEPT
It is most severe during the first pregnancy.
An X-linked primary congenital humoral immunodeficiency is
Death in a case of systemic anaphylaxis (type I) is usually due to
Natural tolerance can be explained by
B. the clonal deletion theory
C. the clonal anergy theory (all of the above)
Tolerogens activate lymphocytes.
A blood transfusion reaction is an example of what type of hypersensitivity reaction?
Products of the major histocompatability complex (MHC) mainly regulate the process of transplantation, immune responsiveness and aspects of complement synthesis.
Graft versus host disease occurs because of ___________ in the graft tissue.
An Arthus reaction is characteristic of which type of hypersensitivity reaction?
Increased susceptibility to fungal, viral and protozoan infections is associated with ____
In this mechanism of suppression the body makes antibodies against its own antibodies.
production of anti-idiotype antibodies
This theory to explain natural tolerance holds that cells with high affinity for self antigens are destroyed in the primary lymphoid organs.
Which of the following is a graft between genetically different members of the same species.
Graft versus host reaction frequently develops following transplantation of
Tolerance to endogenous antigens is
Which type of hypersensitivity is due to the presence of IgE?
Which type of hypersensitivity is due to T cell reactivity?
The most common immunodeficiency disorder is
Selective IgA deficiency
Chediak-Higashi Syndrome is characterized by
a problem with phagocytosis
In this congenital disease the lymphocytes lack MHC markers
bare lymphocyte syndrome
Serum sickness from the administration of horse immunoglobulin results in
a systemic ____________ hypersensitivity reaction.