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innate behavior patterns and habituation

-innate behavior
- habituation

innate behavior

behaviorial abilities that an animal already possess as they enter the world

habituation

the simplest type of learning in which an animal, after a period of exposure to a stimulus, stops responding

innate behavior patterns and habituation

how animals learn to therefore be able to approach to humans

innate behavior patterns and habituation

ethology
- the study of animal behavior in its natural setting

innate behavior patterns and habituation

ethologists
- scientists who study how animals behave in their natural environment or in a semi-naturalistic setting
- their purpose is to determine how an animal's behavior helps it to survive in its environment

innate behavior patterns and habituation

psychologists are different from etholgists
- psychologists' testing environments tend to be artificial

innate behavior patterns and habituation

in recent years psychologist have become interested in these innate behaviors

what we now know

purpose: is to accomplish something

what we now know

one characteristic that is common to learned and unlearned behaviors:
- they both appear to be purposeful or goal directed
- that is, they occur with the end result of accomplishing something

control systems theory

- goal directed > for innate objects
- tries to explain how everything tries to go back to homeostasis

control systems theory

provides a general framework for goal directed behavior
- used to explain goal-directed behaviors both in living creatures and inanimate objects

control systems theory

comparison between the actual state of the world and a goal state:
- states that all goal-directed behavior based upon feedback system

characteristics of goal-directed systems heating system

- comparator: measurements
- always tries to return to a balance

charcteristics of goal-directed systems heating system

example illustrates six of the mostimportant concepts of control systems theory
-reference input
- comparator
- actual input
- actual system
- output
- disturbance

characteristics of goal-directed systems

comparator: any instruments used to measure a property of a system [reference] by comparing it with a standard system [actual]

characteristics of goal-directed systems: comparator

receives 2 types of input:
- reference: conceptual entity [thought]
- actual: physical characteristic

characteristics of goal-directed systems

action system: what happens based on the interaction of information from the reference input and actual input

characteristics of goal-directed systems: action system

product of an action system is the output

heating system example continued

goal directed systems or behavior are frequently called a feedback system or a closed-loop system

heating system example continued

a close relationship does not always exist the output [warm air] of the action system and the actual input [temperature]

heating system example continued

disturbance
- a window open on a cold day, will also affect the air temp near the thermostat
- it may be quite different from the temp of the air coming out of the radiators

innate stereotyped movements

reflex:
- a stereotyped pattern of movement of a part of the body that can be reliably elicited by presenting the appropriate stimulus

innate stereotyped movements: reflect

- the knee jerk reflex
-a stimulus elicited response
- viewed as an example of a feedback system

innate stereotyped movements

reflexes are essential for a newborn's survival immediately after birth:
- incl. sucking, swallowing, blinking, urinating, hiccuping, and defecating

baby talk

palmer grasp:
present at birth, persists until about 6 months

baby talk

rooting reflect
- present at birth until about 4 months
- newborn infant will turn head toward anything that strokes his cheek or mouth

baby talk

babinski's reflex
- occurs when the big toe moves toward the top surface of the foot and the other toes fan out after the sole of the foot has been stroked

baby talk

sucking reflex
- sucks when area around mouth stimulated

baby talk

startle reflex
- pulling arms and legs inward after loud noise

baby talk

moro reflex
- reflex causes the baby to extend the arms, legs and fingers and arch the back

baby talk

step reflex
- stepping motions when sole of foot touches hard surface

baby talk

startle reflex and moro reflex are used interchangeable

not always learned

- some sensation
- your hand feels hot and at the spiral
- your body reacts before your brain gets the sensation

not always learned

- spinal reflex arc
- interneurons

not always learned: spinal reflex arc

path of neural excitation

not always learned: spinal reflex arc

rapid response to a stimulus
- touching a hot stove you have a flexion reflex response where your quick hand movement away from stove causes elbow to bend

not always learned: spinal reflex arc

signals come directly from motor neurons in the spine, instead of being delayed by through the brain

not always learned: spinal reflex arc

the action is involuntary and occurs without any involvement of thought or the brain

not always learned: interneurons [relay neuron]

separates the sensory neurons from motor neurons
- motor neurons lead to action
- sensory neurons send information to brain...you may then feel pain

feed back system: stretch receptions

- comparator
- action system
- goal

feed back system: stretch receptions

comparator [stretch receptors]
action system [motor neurons and muscle fibers]
goal [successful muscle contraction]

feed back system: stretch receptions

comparator continue to stimulate > action system > goal is achieved

feed back system: stretch receptions

just because some neurons have sent their commands to the muscle does not guarantee that the arm is safely withdrawn [there may be a disturbance]

tropisms and orientation

- tropism [involves turning or movement]
- types of tropisms

tropisms and orientation: tropism

whereas a reflex is the stereotyped movement of a body part, a tropism is involuntary orientation by an organism or one of its parts that involved turning or curving [by movement or by differential growth]
- a positive or negative response to a source of stimulation
- no intelligence, will or choice involved in movements
- movement or change in orientation of the entire animal

tropisms and orientation: types of tropism

- kineses [kinesis]
- taxes [taxis]

tropisms and orientation: types of tropism

Kineses [kinesis] not involving toward a purposeful location [for example not moving to a specific location north, south]
- non-directional/random response to a stimulus [ i.e., humidity and a wood lice] the animal does not move toward or away the stimulus but moves more or less depending on its response to a stimulus

tropisms and orientation

Taxes [taxis]
- the direction of movements bears a relationship to the location of the stimulus
- a plant

complex patterns: fixed action patters [fap]

both reflexes and fap's are elicited behaviors or behavior which happens in response to some environmental event

complex patterns: fixed action patters [fap]

reflexes are general to all species where at fap's is part of the repertoire of all members of a specific species and may be unique to that specific species

complex patterns: fixed action patters [fap]

the behavior pattern is not learned

complex patterns: fixed action patters [fap]

once a fap starts, it will continue to completion even if stimuli is removed

complex patterns: fixed action patters [fap]

fap triggered by sign stimulus
- specific stimulus to initiate a fixed action pattern
- a seemingly poor imitation of the natural sign stimulus can elicit a fap

characteristics of fap's

done in a rigid pattern unique to specific

characteristics of fap's

a part of the repertoire of all members of a species
- it may be unique to that species

characteristics of fap's

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examples of fap's

nut burying behavior of squirrels [eibl eibesfeldt, 1975]
- highly controlled experiments-absence of parents

examples of fap's

territorial defense response of male three-spine stickleback fish in matting season [tinbergen, 1951]
- red patch
- painted over or wood

examples of fap's

laying egg behavior of an oyster catcher
- egg falls out of nest, stereotyped head and neck movements to bring it back

examples of fap's

provine [1989] contagious yawning in humans
- is a fixed action patter that may occur if we see the entire face of a yawning person

why are fap's hard to find in humans?

cognitive abilities

reaction chains

fap = always the same goes from beginning to end
reaction chains = can start at the middle

reaction chains

RC differ from faps

reaction chains

the progression from one behavior to the next depends on the presence of the appropriate external stimulus
- if the stimulus is not present, the chain of behavior will be interrupted

reaction chains

if a stimulus for a behavior in the middle of the chain is presented at the outset:
- the earlier behaviors will be omitted
- the rc patterns do not always occur in the complete sequence
- the sequence can stop at any point [hermit crag... pg 45]
- this dependence on external stimulus support makes the behaviors of a rc more variable, but at the same time more adaptable, than those of a fixed action patter

human beings

- obviously have a lot of reflexes, some fixed action patters, and other inborn behaviors
- yes, most of what we do is learned
- some british empiricists maintain that all human behavior is based on prior learning [tabula rasa]

the anti-blank slate: john watson [1925]

- believed that the environment could play a dominant role in determining what type of adults a child will become [pg 45]
- thought that heredity had little or nothing to do with how people behave
-- what evidence do we have to suggest otherwise?

innate human abilities and predispositions: steven pinker [2002]

disagrees with watson's view

innate human abilities and predispositions: steven pinker [2002]

believes that all human beings have in common a large set of inborn abilities, tendencies and predispositions: "human nature"

innate human abilities and predispositions: steven pinker [2002]

people living in different cultues and environment all exhibit a particular characteristic, i.e., language

innate human abilities and predispositions: steven pinker [2002]

brain is specialized to respond to environemnt in reestabbrain have specialized functionslished ways
- neurons in specific part of

innate human abilities and predispositions: steven pinker [2002]

neurons in specific part of brain have specialized functions
- wenicke's area
- broca's area

innate human abilities and predispositions: steven pinker [2002]: wernicke's area

- section of cerebral cortex essential for language comprehension
- if damaged: a person cannot understand spoken language [wenicke's aphasia]

innate human abilities and predispositions: steven pinker [2002]: broca's area

-necessary for speech production
- if damaged: a person loses the ability to speak in coherent sentences [broca's aphasia]

innate human abilities and predispositions

- ekman [1973, 2003]
- facial expression
- cross-cultural uniformity

innate human abilities and predispositions: facial expressions

can be understood by people from cultures around the around [universal emotions]
- happiness
- disgust
- surprise
- sadness
- anger
- fear

innate human abilities and predispositions: cross-cultural uniformity

cross-cultural uniformity in how people express emotions and interpret facial expressions

innate human abilities and predispositions

- anthropologist donald e. brown [1991
- future research may help sort out

innate human abilities and predispositions: anthropologist donald e. brown [1991]

- list of human universals
- having some type of... reflects innate human tendencies

innate human abilities and predispositions: anthropologist donald e. brown [1991]

list of human universals
- abilities or behaviors that are found in all known human cultures
-400 items
-- dance, music, death rituals, hygienic care, jokes, folklore, marriage, tool making and use, government, sanctions for crime, division of labor

innate human abilities and predispositions: anthropologist donald e. brown [1991]

future research may help sort out
- which of these universal characteristics are hereditary
- which are the product of similar environments
- which are a combination of the two

habituation

a decrease in the strength of a response after repeated stimulus presentations
- evident in the body's automatic responses to new and sudden stimuli [gun shots]
- accustom to environment if the same stimulus is presented many times
- stimulus specific [door alarm]

habitation: example

orienting responses
- to adjust or move toward a new stimulus [baby to new sound]

habitation: function

allow the individual to ignore insignificant stimuli that are repeatedly encounter

general principles of habituation: thompson and spencer [1966]

- course of habituation
- effect of time
- relearning effects
- effects of stimulus intensity
- effects of overlearning
- stimulus generalization

general principles of habituation: thompson and spencer [1966]

course of habituation
- occurs whenever a stimulus is repeatedly presented

general principles of habituation: thompson and spencer [1966]

effects of time
- if after time the stimulus is withheld for some period of time, the response will recover
- the amount of recovery depends on the amount of time that elapses [there is some savings but also some forgetting]

general principles of habituation: thompson and spencer [1966]

relearning effects
- in further series of stimulus presentations, habituation should occur progressively more quickly

general principles of habituation: thompson and spencer [1966]

effects of stimulus intensity
- habituation continues more rapidly with weak stimuli and if a stimulus is very intense there may be no habituation at all

general principles of habituation: thompson and spencer [1966]

effects of overlearning
- below zero habituation: further learning can occur at a time when there is no longer any change in observable behavior [20 vs 100 gunshots pg 45]

general principles of habituation: thompson and spencer [1966]

stimulus generalization
- the transfer of habituation from one stimulus to new but similar stimuli
- the amount of generalization depends on the degree of similarity between the stimuli according to the subject not the experimenter

physiological mechanisms of habituation

comes to a point in which the neurons determine whether or not to send the message [reaction]; happens on a neural level

physiological mechanisms of habituation

work of kandel and colleagues [e.g., 1982]

physiological mechanisms of habituation

the simple systems approach study of animals with simple nervous systems [much fewer] neurons]
- aplysia's gill-withdrawal reflex

physiological mechanisms of habituation

habituation due to weak calcium current in axom
- what changed was amount of neurons released into the synapse
- specific neural locations
- no widespread changes such as axxon growth or neurogensis... simple changes in chemical release of already existing neurons

habituation in mammals

- auditory cortex
- position emission tomography [pet] and functional magnetic resonance imaging [mri]
- cerebral cortex and hippocampus with repeated presentation of human faces
- the nervous system and ability to change as a result of experiences and stimulation
- can result from chemical changes in existing synopsis rather than from growth of new synapse

habituation in emotional responses: the opponent-process theory

- emotional act in opposing ways in pairs
- a process is the first one
- b process is the second one

habituation in emotional responses: the opponent-process theory

solomon and corbit [1974] concept:
emotions act in opposing pairs, such as happiness and sadness, fear and relief, pleasure and pain

habituation in emotional responses: the opponent-process theory: solomon and corbit...

emotions...
- when one of these is experienced [a process], the other [b process] is temporarily suppressed
- this opposite emotion [b process] however is likely to re-emerge stronger
- activating one emotion [a process] also activates its opposite [b process] and the interact as a linked pair

the opponent process theory

- a response [in always peak] acts quickly and returns to baseline
- b response is maintained longer

the opponent process theory

Emotional reactions consist of:
an initial response [a response] to a stimulus
- it is a fast acting response that decays quickly when the stimulus is taken away

the opponent process theory

Emotional reactions consist of:
a later opposing response [b process]
- the b process is initiated by the a process, but it is more sluggish in its rise and decay

the opponent process theory

Time plays a role in the emotional response
- subject's response to a stimulus changes as a result of repeated presentations

the opponent process theory

repeated presentations of the same stimulus strengthen the b process:
- that is, the initial reaction grows weaker and the after-reaction grows stronger and lasts longer
-- aversive events eventually become more likely to elicit positive emotions
-- desirable events, over time, become more likely to evoke negative emotions

jumpin' into an example

solomon and corbit [1974] analyzed the emotions of skydivers
- beginners experienced extreme fear in their initial jump [a process] which turned into great relief when they landed

jumpin' into an example

with repeated jumps, the fear of jumping decreased and the post-jump pleasure increased [b process]
- decrease in primary response [a process] = habituation
- b process was strengthened as euphoric feeling came quicker and lasted longer

opponent process theory: addictive behavior

opt can be used to explain drug use and other addictive behavior, as the pleasure of the high is used to oppress the pain of withdrawal

opponent process theory: addictive behavior

initial use vs multiple use:
- pleasurable initial reaction followed by an aversive after reaction
- first opiate injection
- aversive reactions set in

opponent process theory: addictive behavior

first opiate injection
- intense feeling of pleasure [a process]
- peak declines

opponent process theory: addictive behavior

aversive reactions set in:
- nausea
- insomnia
- irritability
- anxiety
- inability to eat
- other physical problems

opponent process theory: addictive behavior

tolerance
- decrease in the effects of a drug with repeated use
- strengthened b process

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