a molecule that is present in all living cells and that contains the information that determines the traits that a living thing inherits and needs to live.
in a nucleic-acid chain, a subunit that consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base.
The shape of DNA; looks like a twisted ladder.
consists of a string of nucleotides that give the cell information about how to make a specific trait.
a molecule that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein production.
a cell organelle composed of RNA and protein; the site of protein synthesis.
a change in the nucleotide-base sequence of a gene or DNA molecule.
when a base is left out.
when a base is added.
most common; when the wrong base is used.
the manipulation of individual genes within organisms.