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Olfactory information is first received by which part of the brain?

cerebrum

The first step in the process of olfaction is __________.

an odorant molecule binding to a specific protein

The olfactory receptors are highly modified ________.

neurons

Olfactory receptors send axons through the cribriform plate. They synapse on neurons in the

olfactory bulb.

A normal, relaxed inhalation carries about ________ of the inhaled air to the olfactory organs.

2%

Olfactory organs are located in the nasal cavity inferior to the perforated bony structure known as the ________.

cribriform plate

The olfactory epithelium is sensitive to more than ________ different "primary smells."

50

Taste buds are monitored by which cranial nerve(s)?

only glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) and facial nerve (VII)

The sense of taste is also known as ________.

gustation

The function of gustatory receptors parallels that of

olfactory receptors.

The taste sensation that is triggered by the amino acid glutamate is known as

umami

Taste buds are monitored by cranial nerves

VII, IX, X.

Which of the following is not one of the six primary taste sensations?

salty
peppery (NOT)
sour
umami
sweet

Taste receptors are distributed in which of the following places?

portions of the pharynx
portions of the larynx
surface of the tongue
all of the above

Gustatory receptors are located

on the surface of the tongue.

The largest numbers of taste buds in adults are associated with the

circumvallate papillae.

A patient who experienced head trauma has lost the ability to taste spicy food. You should expect damage to cranial nerve ________.

v

Which of these is the correct pathway for transmission of visual information?

photoreceptor → bipolar cell → bipolar cell

The vitreous body

helps to stabilize the eye and give physical support to the retina.

The human lens focuses light on the photoreceptor cells by

changing shape.

Which of the following produces a lipid-rich secretion that prevents the upper and lower eyelids from sticking together at their edges?

tarsal gland

A ray of light entering the eye will encounter these structures in which order?

conjunctiva → cornea → aqueous humor → lens → vitreous body → retina → choroid

The ________ covers most of the exposed surface of the eye.

conjunctiva

The space between the cornea and the iris is the

anterior cavity.

The ciliary muscle contracts to

adjust the shape of the lens for near vision.

The cornea is part of the

both fibrous tunic and neural tunic.

What structure changes the shape of the lens for far and near vision?

ciliary body

The "white" of the eye is part of the __________ tunic.

fibrous

The gelatinous material that gives the eyeball its basic shape is the

vitreous humor.

The opening in the iris through which light passes is the

pupil

The transparent portion of the fibrous tunic is the

cornea

The part of the eye that determines eye color is the

iris

Lacrimal glands ____________.

produce lysozyme
produce a watery secretion
moisten the cornea
Lacrimal glands perform all of these functions

All of the following are true of the lacrimal glands, except that they

produce a strongly hypertonic fluid.(NOT)
produce most of the volume of tears.
produce watery, slightly alkaline secretions.
produce lysozyme.
are located in recesses in the frontal bones

In the human eye, most refraction occurs when light passes through the

cornea

A sty ________

is often caused by bacteria.
may involve a tarsal gland.
is a painful swelling in an eyelash.
may involve a sebaceous gland.
all of the above

Which of the following is a function of tears?

nourish the cornea and conjunctiva
lubricate the eye
provide oxygen
wash away debris
all of the above

If your vision is 20/15, this means that you can

see objects at 20 feet that individuals with normal eyesight can see at 15 feet.

A sudden rise of room brightness would cause

contraction of the sphincter pupillary muscles.

Why do things look blurry underwater without dive goggles or mask?

Rather than air, light is moving from water into the cornea and is thus refracted too little for a sharp focus.

Which of the following descriptions applies/apply to the term myopia?

nearsightedness, corrected with diverging lens, and image focused in front of retina

________ glands are modified sebaceous glands located along the margin of the eyelid that secrete a lipid-rich product.

tarsal

A(n) ________ is an infection in one of the glands on the eyelids.

sty

The abnormality that develops when a lens loses its transparency is known as a ________.

cataract

Which of the following statements about the retina is TRUE?

Axons carrying its output synapse in the thalamus.
It has photoreceptors that do not respond to dim light.
Ganglion cells send axons to the brain as cranial nerve II.
It has photoreceptors that do not respond to red light.
All of the above are true.

An elongate outer segment containing membranous discs and a narrow connecting stalk that attaches the outer segment to the inner segment describes

a photoreceptor

When all three cone populations are stimulated equally, we perceive

white

There are three different types of cones, each one sensitive to different light energies. These cones are designated

red, green, blue.

A pigment synthesized from vitamin A is

retinal.

Which of the following statements concerning vision is false?

The entire retina receives equal representation in the visual cortex. (FALSE)
The visual cortex of the brain receives the entire field of vision.
Approximately half of the fibers in each optic nerve cross to opposite sides of the brain at the optic chiasm.
The image that is formed on the retina is inverted.
Fibers of the optic nerve synapse at the lateral geniculates of the thalamus

Which of the following is true about rhodopsin?

called visual purple
is bleached during photoreception
is the visual pigment in rods
consists of opsin + retinal
all of the above

When a rod is stimulated by light,

the plasma membrane becomes hyperpolarized.
the retinal changes from the 11-cis to the 11-trans form.
less neurotransmitter is released.
cGMP decreases and sodium channels close.
all of the above

The visible spectrum for humans extends between a wavelength of 400 nm and ________ nm.

700

A(n) ________ is a basic unit or packet of light energy.

photon

The visual receptors of the retina are called ________.

photoreceptors

________ are photoreceptors that convey our ability to see color.

cones

People unable to distinguish certain colors have a form of ________.

color blindness

The external acoustic meatus ends at

the tympanic membrane, the eardrum, or the tympanum.

Which of these anatomical sequences is correct?

tympanum-malleus-incus-stapes-oval window-round window

The external ear ends at the

tympanic membrane.

The middle ear communicates with the nasopharynx through the

auditory tube.

The senses of equilibrium and hearing are provided by receptors of the

inner ear

Movement of the endolymph in the semicircular canals

signals rotational movements.

When an external force bends the stereocilia of the inner ear hair cells,

there is a change in the transmembrane potential of the hair cells.

The ________ conveys information about head position with respect to gravity.

both utricle and saccule

A sound with a frequency of 12,000 hertz would

be high-pitched.

A loud noise causes

reflex contractions of middle ear muscles.
an alerting reaction leading to sympathetic activation.
a big pressure pulse entering the cochlear duct at that oval window.
a large movement of the tympanic membrane.
all of the above

Sound travels to the eardrum through the ________.

external auditory canal

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