Biology final circulatory system section

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open circulatory system

blood moves through cavities in the body. ex: insects. no veins or arteries less complex.

closed circulatory system

blood moves through veins and arteries. ex: humans

ex 2 chambered heart

fish

ex 3 chambered heart

amphibian

ex 4 chambered heart

reptiles, birds, mammals
ie: humans

valves

flaps that prevent blood from flowing backwards

tricuspid

a valve between right atrium and right ventricle

pulmonary vlave

beween righ ventricle and pulmonary artery

mitral valve

between left ventricle and left atrium

aortic valve

between left ventricle and aorta

pulmonary circuit

carries oxygen poor blood from the heart to the lungs, brings back oxygen rich blood to the heart

systemic circuit

carries oxygen rich blood to the body and brings back oxygen poor blood

SA node (sino-atrial)

located in the righ atrium. is the pacemaker of the heart. It controls how fast the heart beats and is regulated by the body's needs (rest, exercise)

How does the SA node work?

it stimulates both atria to contract by sending electrical impulses to the AV node

AV node (atrial ventricular)

transmits the electrical impulse from the SA node

Blood Pressure units

mmHg

average blood pressure

120/80

1st number of blood pressure

systolic number (highest pressure in the artery when ventricles contract)

2nd number of blood pressure

diastolic (lowest recorded pressure in the artery when the ventricles contract during relaxation)

veins

all deoxegenated vessels except for pulmonary vein

arteries

all oxegenated vessels except for the superior and inferior vena cavas

capillaries

o2 and other nutrients are diffused into the cells while co2 and other nitrogenous waste goes into the blood (diffusion)

Blood is ________ type of tissue

connective

Blood makeup

55% plasma, 45% red blood cells

Plasma makeup

90% water, 10% proteins (dissolved salts WBC, and proteins)

Red blood cells

ertythrocytes, carry oxygen take away co2

platelets

clotting protein, made in bone marrow

how platelets work

injury occurs -> platelets migrate to area-> they rupture and release clotting factors-> form clott-> clott contracts, pull

clotting factors

fibrin, WBC, platelets, RBC

anemia

body does not have enough healthy red blood cells

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