Chromosomes contain ___.
genes are ___ of DNA.
nucleotides, backbone, base
DNA is a macromolecule of repeating, with ___ a sugar/phosphate ___, and a nitrogenous ___ attached to the sugar (G-C, A-T).
DNA ___ attach via weak H bonds.
___ of DNA is possible because the base pairs are complementary (and so can be copied) and the sugar-phosphate backbones are anti-parallel like 2 one way streets.
___ turns the transcription of a gene on.
___ E.coli preferentially fulfills its energy requirements with glucose, if both glucose and lactose are available.
__ ___ allows for metabolism of lactose in E.coli, is regulated both positively and negatively.
___ inhibits gene expressions & decreases enzyme synthesis.
___ will act as a co-repressor and turn the system that normally produces tryptophan "off" to conserve energy.
DNA fragments ("naked DNA") from dead bacteria will get picked up by similar (not necessarily identical) surviving bacteria, which starts the ___ of DNA.
___ involves a "phage" (virus that attacks bacteria) that replicates, and bacterial chromosome is broken into pieces, and may get packaged into the phage capsid, so when it infects a new host cell, it brings the bacterial genetic matter with it.
___is possible, & new cell will differ from phage & bacteria
___ ___ is the formation of sex pillus (common with G-), sticky membrane allowing for transfer of material thru membrane (G+), forming a plasmid.
___ ___ is cell division.
___ are the most common change in the base sequence of DNA, may result in a change to the product such as it being less active or inactive, but many are "silent" neutral (no observable change in function).
most amino acids have several alternative codons, and certain amount of change is built in, so mutation can happen without changing the protein being produced, this is called ___ of code
a ___ mutation is a AA substitution in a synthesized protein & can have dramatic impact (ex: sickle cell).
a ___ mutation is a stop codon in the middle of mRNA and synthesizes only a fragment of a protein.
a ___ mutation shifts the translational reading frame, and always results in a long string altered AA & an inactive protein. (mutagen: benzopyrene in smoke, aflatoxin in peanut/grain mold)
___ is caused by extra bases being inserted into a gene.
___ mutations have no precipitating environmental event.
___ directly or indirectly cause mutations.
___ ___ causes A to pair with C.
___ ___ when given to growing cells, they are randomly incorporated into DNA and cause mistakes in base pairing.
DNA molecule consist of a ___ & a ___.
a ___ is a sugar, phosphate & base together.
a ___ is a sugar and a base.
___ ___ is a close copy used as a drug to prevent viral replication (viral material is then made incorrectly).
DNA is a ___ strand (helix) & RNA (mRNA, rRNA, tRNA) is a ___ strand.
DNA contains ___, & RNA contains ___.
CG, AT, CG, AU
DNA bases are __ & __, and RNA bases are __ & __.
many RNA codons code for the same amino acid so if ___ alters, it will most likely still code for the same thing.
Some mutations are ___ (ex: UV rays; sacrin in fake sugar), some of these don't get turned on until some point in life (ex: breast cancer).
bacteria and viruses experience mutations that increase resistance, pathogenicity and virulence (strength), which can be ___.
___ is the exchange of genetic material between nonhomologous chromosomes (like pairing one shoe with a different match).
specific nucleotide sequence recognizable to proteins initiates ___ replication).
___ separate & form replication bubbles with 2 forks.
topoisomerase or gyrase ___ the tightly coiled DNA
___ unwinds DNA & separates it one small segment at a time.
___ stabilize the parental DNA segments.
DNA ___ synthesize DNA, but cannot directly synthesize polynucleotides, they can only add nucleotides to the free 3' (OH) end.
DNA is separated into 2 strands, the ___ made in the 5' to 3' direction continuously and ___ strand has to be 3' to 5'.
replication fork, RNA, DNA
leading strand replication proceeds toward the ___ ___ beginning with ___ primer being synthesized at the 5' end & DNA polymerase removes the RNA primer and replces it with ___ (synthesized continuously).
DNA ___ joins the 3' end of the replaced RNA primer to the rest of the leading strand.
lagging, Okazaki, RNA primer, polymerase, DNA, ligase
the ___ strand elongates away from the replication fork in a series of segments known as ___ fragments (synthesizes discontinuously), ___ ___ is synthesized at each fragment, DNA ___ adds nucleotides up to the next fragment and the process repeats, RNA primer is replaced with ___, added to the free 3'OH end of the closest Okazaki fragment, DNA ___ joins all of the fragments & mismatches are repaired.