pharm drugs

Created by kthprevatt 

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bronchodilators

mechanism of action: relax bronchial smooth muscle bands to dilate the bronchi and bronchioles that are narrowed as a result of the disease process.

bronchodilators

broad class of drugs with indication: COPD, asthma

beta agonist

albuterol (e.g. Ventolin)

beta agonist

formoterol (Foradil)

beta agonist

epinephrine

beta agonist

metaproterenol (Alupent)

beta agonist

salmetrol (Serevent)

beta agonist

ephedrine

beta agonist

lavalbuterol (Xopenex)

beta agonist

pirbuterol (Maxair)

beta agonist

terbutaline (Brethine)

beta agonist

drug class mechanism of action: raise intracellular levels of cyclic adenosine mono-phosphate, which in turn produces smooth muscle relaxation and dilates the constricted bronchi and bronchioles

beta agonist

drug class indication: acute phase of asthma attack, bronchospasm related to bronchial asthma, pulmonary diseases

beta agonist

drug class side effects: mixed alpha/beta: insomnia, restlessness, anorexia, cardiac stimulation, hyperglycemia, tremor, vascular headache;
beta: cardiac stimulation, tremor, anginal pain, vascular headache
beta2: hyper/hypotension, vasuclar headaches, tremor

anticholinergic

ipratropium

anticholinergic

tiotropium

anticholinergic

drug mechanism of action: block ACh receptor to prevent bronchoconstriction. indirectly causes airway dilation. (cholinergic substances cause constriction and increase secretions)

anticholinergic

drug class indication: prevention of bronchospasm associated with chronic bronchitis or emphysema

anticholinergic

drug side effects: dry mouth/throat; nasal congestion; heart palpitations; GI distress; urinary retention; increase intraocular pressure; headache; coughing; anxiety

xanthine derivatives

caffeine

xanthine derivatives

theobromine *not currently used clinically

xanthine derivatives

theophylline

xanthine derivatives

drug class mechanism of action: raise intracellular levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (Camp), which in turn produces smooth muscle relaxation and dilates the constricted bronchi and bronchioles

xanthine derivatives

drug class indication: COPD; asthma; chronic bronchitis; emphysema; cardiac stimulant in infants with bradycardia

xanthine derivatives

drug class side effects: most common: nausea, vomiting, anorexia; others: gastroesophageal reflux during sleep; sinus tachycardia; extrasystolic palpitations; ventricular dysrhythmias; increased urination; hyperglycermia

leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs)

1st subclass: zileuton (Zyflo)

leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs)

2nd subclass: montelukast (Singulair)

leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs)

2nd subclass: zafirlukast (Accolate)

leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs)

drug class mechanism of action: through reduction of leukotriene synthesisor action, they prevent smooth muscle contraction of bronchial airways, lowers mucus and lowers vascular permeability

leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs)

drug class indication: prophylaxis and long-term asthma treatment; allergic rhinitis

leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs)

drug class side effects: 1st class: headaches; dyspepsia; nausea; dizziness; insomnia; 2nd class: above + diarrhea

corticosteroids

beclomethasone dipropionate (Beclovent)

corticosteroids

budesonide (Pulmicort Turbunahaler)

corticosteroids

dexamethasone sodium phosphate (Decadron Phosphate Respihaler)

corticosteroids

flunisolide (AeroBid)

corticosteroids

fluticasone (Flonase)

corticosteroids

triamcinolone acetonide (Azmacort)

corticosteroids

prednisone (oral)

corticosteroids

methylprednisone (IV or oral)

corticosteroids

drug class mechanism of action: exact mechanism UNK; possibly the dual effect of lowering inflammation and increasing activity of beta agonists

corticosteroids

drug class indication: acute/severe asthma; primary treatment of bronchospastic disorders

corticosteroids

drug class side effects: not recommended long-term; pharyngeal irritation; coughing; dry mouth; oral fungal infections; adrenocorticol insufficiency; increased susceptibility to infection; fluid/electrolyte disturbances; endocrine effects; CNS effects; patient death if not weaned to inhaled

antihistamine

brompheniramine

antihistamine

chlorpheniramine

antihistamine

dexchlorpheniramine

antihistamine

clemastine

antihistamine

diphenhydramine (Benadryl)

antihistamine

dimenhydrinate

antihistamine

pyrilamine

antihistamine

promethazine

antihistamine

azatadine

antihistamine

cyproheptadine

antihistamine

hydroxyzine

antihistamine

phenindamine

antihistamine

fexotenadine

antihistamine

loratadine (Claritin)

antihistamine

drug class mechanism of action: directly competes with histamine for specific receptor sites to (1) reduce dilation of blood vessels and (2) reduce salivary, gastric, lacrimal, and bronchial secretions

antihistamine

drug class indication: allergic reactions; some cold symptoms; motion sickness; Parkinson's Disease; sleep aid

antihistamine

drug class side effects: drowsiness!! anticholinergic (drying) effects: cause dry mouth, change in vision, difficulty urinating, constipation

decongestant

ephedrine

decongestant

oxymetazoline

decongestant

phenylephrine

decongestant

tetrahydrozoline

decongestant

naphazoline (Privine)

decongestant

beclomethasone dipropionate (Beconase)

decongestant

budesonide (Rhinocort)

decongestant

flunisolide (Nasalide)

decongestant

fluticasone (Flonase)

decongestant

triamcinolone (Nasacort)

decongestant

ipratropium nasal spray (Atrovent)

decongestant

drug mechanism of action: shrink engorged nasal mucus membranes and relieve nasal stuffiness (by constricting small arterioles or by lowering inflammatory response elicited by invading organisms)

decongestant

drug class indication: acute/chronic rhinitis; common cold; sinusitis; hay fever; other allergies

decongestant

drug class side effects: nervousness; insomnia; palpitations; tremor

antitussive

opioid: codeine

antitussive

opioid: hydrocodone

antitussive

non-opiod: benzonate

antitussive

non-opiod: dextromethorphan

antitussive

mechanism of action, opioid: affect cough center in CNS (medulla)

antitussive

mechanism of action, non-opioid): anesthetizes stretch receptor cells in respiratory tract, which prevents reflex stimulus of medulla cough center

antitussive

drug class indication: stop cough reflex when cough is nonproductive and/or harmful

antitussive

drug class side effects: dizziness; headaches; sedation; nausea; vomiting; lightheadedness

expectorant

guaifenesin (Mucinex)

expectorant

drug class mechanism of action: reflex stimulation - irritates GI tract, which loosens/thins respiratory tract secretions

expectorant

drug class indications: relief of productive cough caused by common cold, bronchitis; laryngitis; pharyngitis; pertussis; influenza; measles

expectorant

drug class side effects: nausea; vomiting; GI irritations

ACE

benazepril (Lotensin)

ACE

captopril

ACE

enalapril (Vasotec)

ACE

fosinopril

ACE

lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril)

ACE

moexipril (Univasc)

ACE

perindopril (Aceon)

ACE

quinapril (Accupril)

ACE

ramipril (Altace)

ACE

trandolapril (Mavik)

ACE

drug class mech of action: relax blood vessels by inhibiting ACE from converting angiotensin I to angiotensin II

ACE

drug class indication: high BP, CAD, heart failure, diabetes, certain chronic kidney diseases, heart attacks, scleroderma, migraines

ACE

drug class side effects: fatigue, dizziness, mood changes, headaches; angioedema - life threatening in throat; can cause birth defects

Beta Blocker

class II C/V drug

Beta Blocker

acebutolol (Sectral)

Beta Blocker

atenolol (Tenormin)

Beta Blocker

bisoprolol (Zebeta)

Beta Blocker

metoprolol

Beta Blocker

nadolol (Corgard)

Beta Blocker

nebivolol (Bystolic)

Beta Blocker

propranolol (Inderal LA)

Beta Blocker

drug class mech of action: blocks the effects of epinephrine. heart beats more slowly and with less force.

Beta Blocker

drug class indications: high BP, arrhythmia; heart failure; angina; heart attacks; glaucoma; migraines; generalized anxiety disorder; hyperthyroidism

Beta Blocker

drug class adverse effects: decrease in heart rate, cardiac output, and cardiac contractility. cardiac rhythm problems

Calcium Channel Blocker

Class IV C/V drug

Calcium Channel Blocker

amlodipine (Norvasc)

Calcium Channel Blocker

diltiazem (Cardizem LA, Tiazac)

Calcium Channel Blocker

felodipine

Calcium Channel Blocker

isradipine (DynaCirc)

Calcium Channel Blocker

nicardipine (Cardene SR)

Calcium Channel Blocker

nifedipine (Procardia, Procardia XL, Adalat CC)

Calcium Channel Blocker

Nisoldipine (Sular)

Calcium Channel Blocker

verapamil (Calan, Verelan)

Calcium Channel Blocker

drug class mech of action: prevents Ca from entering cells of the heart and blood vessel walls; relaxes and widens blood vessels

Calcium Channel Blocker

drug class indication: high BP, angina, brain aneurysm complications, arrhythmia, migraines, Raynaud's Disease

Calcium Channel Blocker

drug class side effects: hypotension, palpitaions, tachycardia, bradycardia, constipation, nausea, dermatitis, dyspnea, rash, flushing, wheezing

Diuretic

chlorothiazide

Diuretic

hydrochlorothiazide (Microzide)

Diuretic

indapamide

Diuretic

metolazone

Loop Diuretic

bumetanide

Loop Diuretic

ethacrynic acid (Edecrin)

Loop Diuretic

furosemide (Lasix)

Loop Diuretic

torsemide (Demadex)

Osmotic Diuretic

Mannitol

Potassium-sparing Diuretic

amiloride

Potassium-sparing Diuretic

eplerenone (Inspra)

Potassium-sparing Diuretic

spironolactone (Aldactone)

Potassium-sparing Diuretic

triamterene (Dyrenium)

Diuretic

drug class mech of action: "water pills" makes kidneys put more sodium into your urine; helps rid your body of sodium

Diuretic

drug class indication: heart failure, edema, PCOS, kidney disorders, hypertension

Diuretic

drug class side effects: hypokalemia; dizziness, headaches, increase in thirst, muscle cramps, hyperglycemia, nausea, vomiting

Potassium Channel Blockers

amiadarone (Cordavone)

Potassium Channel Blockers

azimilide (stedicor)

Potassium Channel Blockers

bepridil

Potassium Channel Blockers

dofetilide (Tikosyn)

Potassium Channel Blockers

ibutilide (Corvert)

Potassium Channel Blockers

sotalol (Betapace)

Potassium Channel Blockers

tedisamil

Potassium Channel Blockers

mech of action: delays repolarization by binding to and blocking K channels

Potassium Channel Blockers

indication: ventricular tachycardia; atrial fibrillation and flutter

Potassium Channel Blockers

Side effects: cause complication in patients with heart block or SA node dysfunction

CAIs

acetazolamide

CAIs

dichlorphenamide

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