A religious movement begun by Martin Luther in 1517 that led to the repudiation of the Roman Catholic Church in large parts of northern and central Europe.
A member of the legally established Church of England, or that church itself.
An English religious group that followed the teachings of John Calvin. They wanted a fuller reformation of the Church of England and hoped to replace The Book of Common Prayer with sermons. They wanted to purify the Church of England of its surviving Catholic ceremonies and vestments.
A theory that states that God has decreed, even before he created the world, who will be saved and will be damned.
French Protestants who followed the beliefs of John Calvin.
A man who believed that the survival of the state took precedence over religious differences.
coureur de bois
A French phrase interpreted as "a roamer of the woods," referring to French colonists who participated in the fur trade with the Indians and lived part of the year with them.
The French official responsible for military and diplomatic affairs and for appointment of all militia officers in a colony.
The officer who administered the system of justice in New France.
A portion of one's income that is owed to the church. In most places, it was one tenth.
A community's armed force, made up primarily of ordinary male citizens rather than professional soldiers.
The landed gentry who claimed most of the land between Quebec and Montreal. They were never as powerful as aristocrats in France.
The legislative assembly of the Netherlands.
Vast estates along the Hudson River that were established by the Dutch. They had difficulty attracting peasant labor, and most were not successful.
A term of abuse used by opponents to describe members of the Society of Friends, who believed that God, in the form of the Inner Light, was present in all humans. Friends were pacifists who rejected oaths, sacraments, and all set forms of religious worships.
A Dutch word for New Englanders that originally meant something like "land pirate."
English Puritans who insisted that they were faithful members of the Church of England while demanding that it purge itself of its surviving Catholic rituals and vestments.
One of the most extreme English Protestant groups that were followers of John Calvin. They began to separate from the Church of England and from the Church of England and form their own congregations.
Founded by Separatists in 1620, Plymouth was England's first permanent colony in New England.
Sir Walter Raleigh
An Elizabethan courtier who, in the 1580s, tried but failed to establish an English colony on Roanoke Island in what is now North Carolina.
Founded in 1607, Jamestown became England's first permanent settlement in North America. It served as the capital of Virginia for most of the 17th century.
A geographical landmark defined by the first waterfalls encountered when going upriver from the sea. These waterfalls prevented oceangoing ships from sailing further inland and thus made the fall line a significant early barrier. Land between the falls and the ocean was called the tidewater. Land above the falls but below the mountains was called the piedmont.
Captain John Smith
A member of the Virginia Council; his strong leadership from 1607 to 1609 probably saved the colony from collapse.
House of Burgesses
Massachusetts Bay Company
Inns of Court