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Mendel's crossing of spherical-seeded pea plants with wrinkled-seeded pea plants resulted in progeny that all had spherical seeds. this indicates that the wrinkled-seed trait is ?

recessive

The genotype of an organism that expresses a dominant trait can be determined by ?

crossing the organism with a homozygous recessive organism

Different forms of a gene are called?

alleles

The physical appearance of a character is called?

the phenotype

A particular genetic cross in which the individual in question is crossed with an individual known to be homozygous for a recessive trait is referred to as a

test cross

Segregation of alleles occurs?

during gamete formation

Which of the following molecules functions to transfer information from one generation to the next in eukaryotes?

DNA

Chargaff's rule states that ?

the amount of cytosine equals the amount of guanine

The strands that make up DNA are antiparallel. This means that ?

the 5' -to- 3' direction of one strand is counter to the 5' -to- 3' direction of the other strand

Double-stranded DNA looks like a ladder that has been twisted into a helix, or spiral. The side supports of the ladder are?

alternating sugars and phosphates

The characteristic of DNA that allows it to make an exact copy of itself is ?

its complementary base pairing

DNA is together in a double helix by the force of ?

hydrogen bonds

At the end of DNA replication, two DNA molecules are produced, each one consisting of a parental DNA strand and a new DNA strand. This process is known as ?

semiconservative replication

In DNA replication, each newly made strand is?

complementary in sequence to the strand from which it was copied

The enzyme DNA ligase is required continuously during DNA replication because ?

fragments of the lagging strand must be joined together

In sickle-cell disease, one amino acid is substituted for another. This type of mutation is referred to as a ----- mutation?

missense

The process by which information in the nucleic acid sequence is used to direct the production of a specific chain of amino acids is called ?

translation

Transcription is the process by which ?

an RNA molecule is synthesized from a DNA template

Which of the following statements about the flow of genetic information is true ?

DNA encodes information that is translated into RNA, and RNA encodes information that is translated into proteins

Which of the following molecules is most involved in the transfer of genetic information from the nucleus to the sytoplasm?

mRNA

RNA polymerase is a ?

protein

During initiation, the sequence of DNA to which RNA polymerase binds most tightly is the ?

promoter

In eukaryotes, exons are ?

spliced together from the original transcript

The three codons in the genetic code that do not specify amino acids are called ?

stop codons

UGU and UGC both code for cysteine. A change from UGU to UGC would thus be a ----- mutation ?

silent

During translation initiation, the first site occupied by a charged tRNA is the ?

A site

A newly formed protein whose destination is the golgi apparatus will likely contain ?

a signal sequence

The addition of sugar residues to the protein after translation is called ?

glycosylation

After translation, the polypeptide chains of some proteins are cut by a process called ?

proteolysis

In the process of protein synthesis, which of the following must take place in order to ensure that the protein made is the one specified by mRNA ?

both a and b

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