What is the strongest risk factor for malignancy?
recently changed mole (RR of 10)
Sun sensitivity increases risk by 2-3 fold
Positive FHx: 8 fold
Previous sunburns: RR of 2
How does angioedema present?
- noninflammatory edema of face, limbs, genitalia
- laryngeal edema
- edema of bowels resulting in colicky abd pain
What is the pathology behind angioedema?
C1 inhibitor deficiency, dysfxn, destruction
- C2b and bradykinin increased (edema producing factors)
most common acquired form of angioedema is ACEI use
What are cherry hemagiomas?
small red cutaneous papules common in aging adults
Do not regress spontaneously and typically increase in number w/ age
Light microscopy: proliferation of capillaries and postcapillary venules in papillary dermis
What are strawberry hemangiomas?
infantile hemangioma that appears during first weeks of life, initially grow rapidly and then involute by 5-8yrs
What are cavernous hemangiomas?
dilated vascular spaces w/ thin-walled endothelial cells
present as soft blue compressible masses up to a few cm in size
- seen on skin, mucosa, deep tissues, and viscera
- less likely to regress spontaneously than capillary hemangiomas
- cavernous hemangiomas of the brain and viscera are assoc w/ von Hippel-Lindau disease
What are cystic hygromas?
lymphatic cysts lined by a thin endothelium
present at birth and are most commonly located on the neck and lateral chest wall.
Assoc w/ Turner's syndrome and Down syndrome
How is hypothermia tx?
rapid rewarming w/ warm water
extremity should be immersed in warm water which is continuously circulated
How does squamous cell carcinoma present microscopically?
invasive cords of squamous cells w/ keratin pearls
**How is mild inflammatory acne tx?
topical benzyl peroxide
topical abx (erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline)
What is bullous pemphigoid?
Benign pruritic disease
oral lesions rare
immunofluorescence shows IgG and C3 deposits in the dermal epidermal jxn
What is bullous impetigo?
contagious infxn of the skin caused by Staph, Strep or both
- macules, vesicles, bullae, honey colored crusts, have red denuded areas when removed
- bullous type is assoc w/ Staph
What is erythema multiforme?
macular, papular, bullous or purpuric
"target" lesions noted
most commonly involved sites: extensor surface, palms, soles, and mucous membranes
What is dermatitis herpetiformis?
manifested by pruritic papules, vesicles over the elbows, knees, buttocks, posterior neck, and scalp
Immunofluorescence: granular IgA deposits along dermal papillae
Can detect circulating anti-endomysial antibodies can be detected in all pts (gluten-sensitive enteropathy)
What is pemphigus vulgaris?
mucocutaneous blistering disease that is characterized by flaccid bullae and intercellular IgG deposits in the epidermis
Autoabs are formed against desmoglein (adhesion molecule)
What is the tinea versicolor?
superficial fungal infxn of the skin
pale, velvety pink or whitish hypopigmented macules that do not tan and do not appear scaly, but scale on scraping
Caused by Malassezia furfur
areas never tan
skin scrapings after KOH preparation reveals large, blunt hyphae and thick-walled budding spores ("spaghetti and meatballs" appearance)
How do you distinguish between tinea versicolor and vitiligo?
vitiligo usually presents w/ peri-orificial lesions or lesions on the tips of fingers
total depigmentation and not just lessened pigmentation
What is Pityriasis rosea?
oval, fawn-colored plaques that measure up to 2cm in diameter and occur in a Christmas tree pattern.
initial lesion (herald patch) that is followed by generalized eruption in 1-2 wks
What is the most common cause of acquired angioedema?
- can occur at any time, not just within/wks of starting meds
What is molluscum contagiosum?
single or multiple, rounded, dome-shaped papules w/ central umbilication
no systemic signs
initially firm, but may later soften and suppurate
Children: trunk and extremities are mainly involved
Adults: face, lower abd, genitals
Sexually active: penis, pubis and inner thighs
Seen in AIDS, especially if less than 100/ul
What is miliaria?
superficial aggregated small vesicles, papules or pustules over the trunk
associated w/ burning and itching
What is tinea corporis?
characterized by ring-shaped scaly patches w/ central clearing and distinct borders
How is tinea corporis tx?
2% antifungal lotions and creams (terbinafide)
OR systemic tx w/ griseofulvin (extensive disease) offers good relief
What is TEN?
severe mucocutaneous exfoliative disease
- erythematous morbilliform eruption that rapidly evolves into exfoliation of the skin
- positive Nikolsky's sign
- oral mucosa shows painful blisters
- neg drug rxn: sulfonamides, barbituates, phenytoin, NSAIDs
What is the difference between TEN and Steven Johnson Syndrome?
Steven Johnson Syndrome: up to 10% of BSA involved
TEN: >30% of BSA is involved
What is Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome?
syndrome of acute exfoliation of skin caused by toxin that is produced by phage group 2 Staph
Skin is tender and warm, with a diffuse erythematous rash that is sandpaper-like.
Bullae, positive Nikolsky's sign, facial edema, perioral crusting, and dehydration are other features.
Children <6yrs of age
What is rosacea?
telangiectasia over the cheeks, nose, and chin
Flushing of these areas typically precipitated by hot drinks, heat, emotion, and other causes of rapid body temp changes
How does basal cell carcinoma present?
slow-growing nodules w/ pearly quality and rolled border
often telangictasias overlying and at the periphery of the lesion
bleeding and ulcerations are common features
thinning or loss of eyelashes in the region of the tumor is typical
most common location for eyelid BCCs is the lower eyelid margin
What is Keratoacanthoma?
rapidly growing "volcano-like" nodule w/ a central keratotic plug
tx like SCC
What conditions are assoc w/ vitiligo?
- pernicious anemia
- autoimmune thyroid disease (Graves' or chronic autoimmune thyroiditis)
- type 1 diabetes mellitus
- primary adrenal insufficiency
- alopecia areata
What type of skin condition is associated w/ Parkinson's disease?
- waxy scales w/ underlying erythema on the scalp, central face, presternal region, interscapular areas, umbilicus and body fluids
also assoc w/ HIV
What is porphyria cutanea tarda?
assoc w/ Hep C
condition that arises from the deficiency of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (enezyme in heme synthesis pathway)
- painless blisters
- increased skin fragility on the dorsal surfaces of the hands, facial hypertrichosis and hyperpigmentation
- triggered by ingestion of certain substances (ethanol, estrogens)
DX: elevated urinary porphyrin levels
TX: phlebotomy or hydroxychloroquine may provide relief, interferon-alpha (esp in pts w/ Hep C)
What is acantholytic dermatosis?
pt presents w/ pruritus erythematous to brown keratotic papules over anterior chest, upper back, lower rib cage
What condition is assoc w/ dermatitis herpetiformis?
- pts may have GI sx suggestive of malabsorption
- presence of anti-endomysial abs
- increased risk for gastro-intestinal lymphomas
How is melanoma dx?
excisional biopsy w/ narrow margins
- if depth is < 1mm, excise w/ 1cm tumor free margin
- if depth >1mm, sentinal lymph node study needed
**What is herpetic whitlow?
**viral infxn of the hand
caused by Type 1 or 2 herpes simplex virus, and is self-limiting
at risk: health care workers who come in direct contact w/ infected orotracheal secretions
How does measles present?
1) exposure to virus (transmitted via respiratory droplets)
2) prodrome after 10 days (coryza, conjunctivitis, cough = 3 Cs)
3) Koplik's spots (red spots w/ bluish specks over the buccal mucosa, opposite the premolar tooth) and slowly fade once the rash appears
4) characteristic rash is erythematous maculopapular, initially over the face and then spreads to cover the entire trunk and extremities
What drugs can trigger bullous pemphigoid?
autoimmune blistering disorder
What does direct immunofluorescence reveal in bullous pemphigoid?
IgG and C3 deposits linearly along the basement membrane zone
What is warfarin-induced skin necrosis?
serious complication of oral anticoagulants
- breasts, buttocks, thighs, and abdomen
- pain, bullae formation and skin necrosis
- occurs weeks after starting therapy
Tx: Vita K admin
exchange and use heparin instead
How does scarlet fever present?
toxin-related process from Group A strep
prodrome of fever, headache, vomiting, and sore throat
fine pink blanching papules appear on the neck and upper trunk and quickly generalize w/ flexural accentuation
eruption is rough, sandpaper-like texture
How does rubella present?
1) exposure to virus (transmitted via respiratory droplets)
2) development of fever, malaise, tender suboccipital adenitis after 14-21 days
3) characteristic rash appears 1-5 days later (maculopapular rash initially on the face, and then spreading to involve the trunk and extremities, lasting for less than 3 days)
polyarthralgia is common in adults. posterior cervical and posterior auricular lymphademopathies are common.
What conditions predispose pts to molluscum contagiosum?