Biology Final Ch 18

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binomial nomenclature

a two-word naming system

genus

a group of similar species

systematics

the science of naming and grouping organisms

taxa (taxon)

groups that have biological meaning

family

in classification, group of similar genera

order

in classification, a group of closely related families

class

in classification, a group of closely related orders

phylum

in classification, a group of closely related classes

kingdom

largest and most inclusive group in Linnaean classification

what are the goals of bionomial nomenclature and systematics?

-each species is assigned a two-part scientific name
-organize living things into groups that have biological meaning

how did Linneaus group species into a larger taxa?

-seven hierarchial taxa: species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, and kingdom

phylogeny

the history of evolutionary lineages

clade

a group of species that includes a single common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor-linving and extinctq

monophyletic group

group that includes a single common ancestor of all of its descendants and excludes any organisms that arent descended from that common ancestor

cladogram

diagram depicting patterns of shared characteristics among species

derived character

a trait that arose in the more recent common ancestor of a particular lineage that was passed along to its descendants

what is the goal of evolutionary classification?

to group specvies into larger categories that reflect lines of evolutionary descent, rather than overall similarites

what is a cladogram?

links groups of organisms by showing off how evolutionary lines/lineages branched off from common ancestors

how are DNA sequences used in classification?

the more derived genetic characters two species share, the more recently they shared a common ancerstor and the more the closely they are related in evolutionary terms

domain

a larger, more incluisve category than a kingdom

bacteria

domain of unicellular prokaryotes that have cell walls containing peptidoglycan; corresponds to the kingdom eubacteria

archaea

domain consisting of unicellular prokaryotes that have cell walls that dont contain peptidoglycan; corresponds to kingdom Archaebateria

eukarya

domain consisting of all organisms that have a nucleus; includes protists, plants, fungi, and animals

what are the six kingdoms of life as they are now identified?

Eubacteria, Archaebacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia

what does the tree of life show?

shows current hypotheses regarding evolutionary relationships among the taxa within the three domains of life

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