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1. What impact did the Vikings raids have on Europe? 2. Explain the contract between lord and vassal. 3. What was the conflict between Henry 5th and Pope Gregory VII? 4. What held feudal society together?

Middle Ages

The period in western European history from the fall of the Roman Empire until 1450.

Charlemagne

Frank king that spread Christianity in Western Europe.

feudalism

A political and social system developed for protection based on agreements between lords and vassals

lord

in the middle ages, a noble who owned and controlled all activities on his manor

serf

a member of the lowest feudal class, bound to the land and whoever owned the land

manor

A large estate, often including farms and a village, ruled by a lord.

knight

an armed, mounted soldier of the feudal period who gives military service to a lord

chivalry

a knight's code of honor

vassal

a noble who held land from and served a higher-ranking lord, and in return was given protection

monarch

A ruler, such as a king or queen

clergy

persons with authority to perform religious services

lay investiture

the appointment of religious officials by kings or nobles

excommunication

When a person is kicked out or banished from the church.

classical

relating to ancient Greece and Rome

Crusades

A series of military expeditions launched by Christian Europeans to win the Holy land back from Muslim control.

Holy Land

Jerusalem and parts of the surrounding area where Jesus lived and taught

fief

land granted by a lord to a vassal in exchange for loyalty and service

Magna Carta

A legal document written by English nobles in 1215 that stated certain rights and limited the power of the King

parliament

a group of representatives in English government that controlled taxation.

independent judiciary

limits the power of government with a system of judges and courts that is separate from other branches of government.

habeas corpus

a right of protection against unlawful imprisonment

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